Publications

SAPEA publications

SAPEA publications, including Evidence Review Reports, are available here.

Publications from academies and European Academy Networks

SAPEA provides access to the knowledge and expertise from over 100 academies, young academies and learned societies from over 40 countries across Europe. Use the box below to search for keywords, academies or contributors.



Spotlight on climate in Switzerland

Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences

The average surface temperature of the Earth has seen extraordinarily large increases since the middle of the 20th century – and we know why. It is primarily we humans who change the earth’s energy balance by releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Because of the particular sensitivity of its natural systems to climate change, Switzerland has a vested interest in a quick and comprehensive shift by the international community to a carbon-neutral economy and lifestyle.

http://www.swiss-academies.ch/en/index/Publikationen/Swiss-Academies-Factsheets.html

01 / 10 / 2019

Wildlife and humans in outdoor recreational areas near cities

Roland F. GRAF, Claudio SIGNER, Martina REIFLER-BÄCHTIGER, Martin WYTTENBACH, Benjamin SIGRIST, Reto …   see more contributors

RUPF

Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences

Outdoor recreational areas in the vicinity of cities buzz with activity, not only during the day, but also in the early mornings, late evenings, and even at night. This puts pressure on wild animals and their habitats. Roe deer are less active and many wildlife species are losing habitat in areas heavily frequented by humans. Wildlife refuges, restricted accessibility, and visitor management can improve living conditions for wildlife.

http://www.swiss-academies.ch/en/index/Publikationen/Swiss-Academies-Factsheets.html

01 / 10 / 2019

Reverse emissions or influence solar radiation: Is “geoengineering” worthwhile, feasible and if so, at what price?

Pascal VERDONCK, Marc VAN HULLE, Bart DE MOOR, Erik MANNENS, Rudy MATTHEUS, …   see more contributors

Geert MOLENBERGHS, Femke ONGENAE, Marc PETERS, Bart PRENEEL, Frank ROBBEN

Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences

The aim of the Paris Agreement is to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius, if possible even 1.5 degrees Celsius. Various scenarios show that very great efforts are necessary to achieve these goals through emission reduction measures alone. This motivates the search for additional solutions. Technical interventions in the climate system, often referred to by collective terms such as “geoengineering” or “climate intervention”, are therefore discussed. However, most of these measures are associated with costs, risks and undesirable side effects that have so far been very difficult to assess. While some measures only exist in theory, others have been tested in small format, but nevertheless there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of an application on the required large scale. Since the measures would not have the same effects in different parts of the world, ethical questions of global and regional justice are also particularly important and should be covered by international regulations.

http://www.swiss-academies.ch/en/index/Publikationen/Swiss-Academies-Factsheets.html

01 / 10 / 2019

Governance of regional development: How can regions unlock their potential?

Yasmine WILLI, Marco PÜTZ

Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences

Coordinating regional development processes is a highly challenging task that needs to be mastered in order to sustainably strengthen regions for the future. We would like to conclude with three key messages – two for practitioners and one for scientists: •Distribute tasks clearly, linking them with appropriate decision-making power: Management centres in particular need a clear mandate from the association’s members, sufficient scope for action, and enough resources to implement development strategies independently. Likewise, the tasks of board, working group, and advisory board members must be specified in detail from the outset and should not only be known to the relevant actors, but also acknowledged by them (keyword: legitimacy). •When drafting a regional development strategy, already think about ways of implementing it: Regional development agencies and all other actors involved should discuss early on and in concrete terms how development projects will be implemented. Wherever possible, management centres should try to obtain binding commitments from potential project partners and project implementers and clarify the future funding and implementation of projects. Finally, regional development strategies also need to be coordinated with other strategies and funding programmes aiming at regional development (e.g. tourism strategies, economic strategies of trade associations and municipalities, etc.) (keyword: coherence). •Further investigate how regional development can be made more coherent: Augmenting coherence between different federal programmes for the promotion of regional development – for example, the “Regional Development Projects” of the Federal Office for Agriculture or the “Model Projects for Sustainable Spatial Development” of the Federal Office for Spatial Development – requires a better understanding of how different development approaches lead to the emergence of different forms of regional governance. Research projects that com-pare regional development in Switzerland with that in other European countries can provide additional insights into how regional development processes can be better coordinated.

http://www.swiss-academies.ch/en/index/Publikationen/Swiss-Academies-Factsheets.html

01 / 10 / 2019

Mutual reinforcement: How public and private investments in research and development relate

Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences

Following a debate in the Dutch House of Representatives in the autumn of 2017, the Minister of Education, Culture and Science asked the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences to investigate ‘whether and to what extent links between publicly funded science and the private sector result in businesses having fewer incentives to invest in research & development themselves’. The Academy has examined the questions posed by the Minister of Education, Culture and Science along three lines, namely 1) Survey and analysis of data on investment in R&D; 2) Qualitative analysis of partnerships in R&D; and 3) Econometric modelling.

https://www.knaw.nl/en/news/publications/wederzijdse-versterking

01 / 10 / 2019

Mapping social impact

Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences

In 2014, the Dutch Government published its Vision for Science 2025 [Wetenschapsvisie 2025]. One of its aims is to link up Dutch scientific research with society more effectively and to ensure that it has an impact on society and the economy. Following on from the Vision for Science, the then State Secretary for Education, Culture and Science requested the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (‘the Academy’) in 2017 to advise him on how best to determine the societal and economic impact of science. The present Advisory Report presents the Academy’s recommendations.

https://www.knaw.nl/en/news/publications/maatschappelijke-impact-in-kaart

01 / 10 / 2019

Languages for the Netherlands

Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences

The report Languages for the Netherlands examines what this paradox means for the position of languages in various sectors of society and in Dutch education. The report also explores the consequences for the Dutch language as a means of communication. Closely related is the question of how to bridge the gap between different cultures. To achieve social cohesion in a multilingual and multicultural society, we must have a knowledge of its main languages and cultures. The question then is: what knowledge is essential for health care or law enforcement professionals, for example, and what should all inhabitants of the Netherlands know? It is a question that urgently requires an answer, especially at a time when, influenced by the forces of globalisation and migration, people often communicate in multiple languages, both in their work and in their everyday social environment. The languages that newcomers bring to and use in the Netherlands are also an enrichment. They can generate added value for our knowledge economy, but only if we make good use of the linguistic expertise in our midst. The study that underpins this report considered the consequences of increased multilingualism for communication between people and between people and institutions, the implications of multilingualism for education in the Netherlands, and the changes necessary in that regard. It considered various sectors of Dutch society in which language plays an important role, i.e. health care, law enforcement and the courts; international relations; cultural cohesion; trade and the economy.

https://www.knaw.nl/en/news/publications/talen-voor-nederland

01 / 10 / 2019

The Netherlands’ attractiveness as a research country

Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences

The Netherlands is an appealing country for researchers. The quality of Dutch research is excellent, the national research infrastructure is outstanding, and employees in the Netherlands have access to a generous benefits package and a good quality of life. But as the level of international cooperation in research grows and the volume of research activity in China, India and other emerging economies rises, the Netherlands must work to maintain its favourable status if it wants to continue attracting talented junior and outstanding senior researchers in the future. The Academy has established an advisory committee to study the impact of university researchers’ geographic mobility on the Netherlands and to advise on how to improve the Netherlands’ position in that regard. The committee has focused on long-term mobility – two years or more – and on university researchers with an academic rank of assistant professor or higher. Based on the underlying report drafted by the advisory committee, the Academy concludes that the Netherlands has experienced neither a brain drain nor a brain gain in the past decade, but rather a growing tendency towards brain circulation. In the past ten years, the number of university researchers who came to the Netherlands was about the same as the number of researchers who left. In addition, geographic mobility is increasing, with academic staff in the Netherlands becoming more international all the time. That is also true of the group of top researchers awarded a VIDI or VICI grant. A third of the VIDI laureates and a quarter of the VICI laureates are not Dutch nationals. These figures illustrate that the Netherlands is an open society and that NWO’s Talent Scheme has been a successful and appealing channel for brain circulation. The Talent Scheme also supports researchers who wish to build or continue their academic careers in the Netherlands, with more than 90% of laureates remaining after their grant ends. Researchers in which the Netherlands has invested therefore continue to live and work here. A worrisome trend, however, is the growing summary 11 number of funding applications received by NWO and the declining award percentage.

https://www.knaw.nl/en/news/publications/aantrekkelijkheid-van-nederland-als-onderzoeksland

01 / 10 / 2019

Dutch and/or English? Language choice in Dutch Higher Education policy

Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences

The number of study programmes in Dutch higher education in which instruction is provided in English, either wholly or partially, has increased steadily in recent years. The trend is strongest at research universities, but it is also evident at universities of applied sciences. The ascendency of English as a language of instruction in Dutch higher education has given rise to much debate. Some believe it is a largely beneficial trend, for example with a view to internationalisation and quality of education. Others are worried about the quality of knowledge transfer or about detrimental consequences for culture and society. This debate has led the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science to ask the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences to conduct a foresight study into language choice and language policy in Dutch higher education in the broad sense, focusing specifically on the choice between English and Dutch. The Minister has requested solid data and arguments that can form the basis for a rational discussion of the value of instruction in Dutch and English and the conditions needed to guarantee the quality of higher education. The Minister has also asked the Academy to consider the effects of the increasing use of English in higher education on professional practice, on the progress of students into and within higher education, and on Dutch culture and society. Because instruction in Dutch study programmes is typically provided in English and/ or in Dutch, and in view of the Minister’s request, the committee appointed to prepare the foresight study (‘committee’) has concentrated on these two languages. The foresight study is based on the available literature and reports on language choice, language policy and their effects, on reports by the institutions concerning their language summary 11 policy, and on interviews with representatives of the relevant organisations, university lecturers and students.

https://www.knaw.nl/en/news/publications/nederlands-en-of-engels

01 / 10 / 2019

China’s Long March to Central and Eastern Europe

Weiqing Song

Academia Europaea

This essay provides a timely account of China’s recent initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), centring on the ‘16+1’ format. It discusses China’s motivation in this part of Europe in relation to its ‘Go Global’ policy and, more recently and relevantly, the ‘One Road, One Belt’ initiative. It argues that China has made big efforts to strengthen its presence in CEE through state-driven commercialism. While there have been some meaningful outcomes, particularly in building institutional ties, China’s ambition in the CEE region faces some practical and deep-rooted obstacles. Put succinctly, there is still a long way to go before China becomes a mature global power.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/chinas-long-march-to-central-and-eastern-europe/09C6000A65D6E7FD1EAF1E17F4BF9C4E

20 / 09 / 2019

Are Labour Market Reforms the Answer to Post-Euro-Crisis Management? Reflections on Germany’s Hartz Reforms

Luo Chih-Mei

Academia Europaea

This article is an attempt to clarify the effects of the German labour market reforms, commonly known as the Hartz reforms. Competing arguments were used to identify the welfare implications for German society and the German economy in order to explore whether or not such labour market reforms might provide another German answer, following fiscal discipline, to the EU’s post-euro-crisis management. This paper confirms that the Hartz reforms effectively reduced German unemployment, but they did not fundamentally solve the problem. Moreover, such effects appeared to propagate an increase in size of the low-paid sector, declining wages and increasing income inequality. The reforms were not welfare-enhancing for individuals because of increased poverty levels in employment and unemployment, which further implied a counter-productive risk for the German economy because of the contraction of domestic consumption, and potential social instability for German society because of rising inequality and deteriorating living standards. Therefore, Hartz-style reforms are neither a desirable model for other EU countries, nor the answer to Europe’s post-euro-crisis management in a time of fiscal austerity and negative interest rates. The real danger to European integration, as argued in this article, is not the challenge from high unemployment, but from Germany’s complacency of a one-size-fits-all thinking and, being the EU’s leading country, its double standards towards and ignorance of the differential nature and contexts of the European unemployment issue compared with the German one. This article warns that the mishandling of labour market reforms could result in the collapse of the already fragile public confidence in European integration.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/are-labour-market-reforms-the-answer-to-posteurocrisis-management-reflections-on-germanys-hartz-reforms/2564EEB2EEC0A7BC0B03A1B9880B4D8A

20 / 09 / 2019

The European Union as a Global Actor: The Case of the Financial Transaction Tax

Marina Strezhneva

Academia Europaea

The EU plays a high-profile role in the international arena, and yet this role still evades accurate conceptualization. Since the EU is not a state, it is commonly accepted as sui generis; a normative power influencing the world order mostly by means of direct and intermediary persuasion. Despite this position, in practice when championing the global normative agenda, the EU does not always demonstrate high efficiency as a leader. This article studies the EU’s efforts to push through regional and global versions of a financial transaction tax, meant to promote the common good through the positive externalities it generates for the economy. The aim of the article is to arrive at an adequate explanation for the (in)ability of the EU to act as an agent of global governance in this case. The focus of attention is the inner organizational limitations on the EU’s behaviour as a global actor.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/european-union-as-a-global-actor-the-case-of-the-financial-transaction-tax/DB011F95C420DAAAD921C2538D7BC508

20 / 09 / 2019

Additionality of European Cohesion Policy

Sonja Slander, Peter Wostner

Academia Europaea

Is cohesion policy effective? Does it contribute to the reduction of development disparities and strengthen competitiveness in the European Union? These are the questions that have inspired a growing body of research on cohesion policy evaluation, and which has come to varied and inconclusive results. There has been significant variation with regards to the established (in)effectiveness of cohesion policy among different methodological approaches, which all have serious methodological shortcomings. In order to circumvent these, the authors have not only continued to rely on rigorous econometric methods but also focused on the potential benefits through an indirect estimation approach. They have confirmed that cohesion policy is de facto additional, i.e. that it effectively increases the structural expenditures of the recipient Member States, which, given the evidence on fiscal multiplier, should lead to stronger growth performance.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/additionality-of-european-cohesion-policy/67E9F9728F48229FA76724546368C06D

20 / 09 / 2019

Socializing Global Economic Governance: Introducing a Financial Transaction Tax

Vladimir Nikolaevitch Zuev, Elena Yakovlevna Ostrovskaya

Academia Europaea

The uncontrolled exponential growth of the financial sector and its rapid globalization led to an equally rapid increase in challenges to the global financial system. The already undertaken measures aimed at improving financial stability are necessary, yet not sustainable enough. The aim of this article is to provide more analytical arguments to favour another solution – the introduction of the Financial Transaction Tax (FTT), and to increase the public and academic awareness of the necessity of such a measure. The ongoing reforms do not solve the key problem – the enormous cost to rescue the financial sector, subsidized to a large extent by the taxpayer, and the absence of a fair contribution from the financial sector. FTT as a tool to discourage excessive speculation without hindering other activities seems to be a socially responsible measure working for financial stability at the same time. To efficiently socialize its impact, however, it is critical to define exact patterns of spending of the funds raised by the states.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/socializing-global-economic-governance-introducing-a-financial-transaction-tax/D8DA3B1341FC31C2660DE1F8440A6B04

20 / 09 / 2019

Social Mobility Barriers for Roma: Discrimination and Informal Institutions

Pavel Ciaian, Kancs D’artis

Academia Europaea

Social Mobility Barriers for Roma: Discrimination and Informal Institutions

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/social-mobility-barriers-for-roma-discrimination-and-informal-institutions/476E749A9986830397627D25CAEEF1CC

20 / 09 / 2019

Reflective Identity of Students/Future Teachers – Chances and Hopes for Shaping a New Educational and Social Reality

Alina Szczurek-Boruta

Academia Europaea

Drawing upon Gidden’s theory of structuration, the works of Castells and Polish intercultural education, the author focuses on the relationship between installing in future teachers what we will call a ‘reflective identity’ and the creation of a new educational and social reality, thus contributing to transforming the whole social structure.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/reflective-identity-of-studentsfuture-teachers-chances-and-hopes-for-shaping-a-new-educational-and-social-reality/049107949EB04535085986DE2D7EAEF0

20 / 09 / 2019

Conspiracy Narratives in Russian Politics: from Stalin to Putin

Chaim Shinar

Academia Europaea

In order to silence the resistance, the Soviet Union under Stalin kept the population in permanent fear and uncertainty by recurrent purges of innocent citizens, ‘Old Bolsheviks’ and Red Army commanders, thus terrorizing the entire population. Similar conspiracy narratives are used under Putin. In order to keep his grip on power, after the Beslan massacre, Putin’s administration discourse hints at the operation of an international conspiracy of states using terrorism as an instrument to weaken Russia.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/conspiracy-narratives-in-russian-politics-from-stalin-to-putin/4E0BD0A98746D696A5D6A2D41AD1642C

20 / 09 / 2019

Brexit and Scotland: Centralism, Federalism or Independence?

Andreas Rahmatian

Academia Europaea

The public debate about the consequences of Brexit in Britain follows certain predictable lines of established academic concepts in British constitutional law. This arguably overlooks the important constitutional complications of Brexit, including the position of Scotland in post-Brexit Britain. This article takes the unorthodox approach of focusing on legal and intellectual history rather than British constitutional law, because in this way one obtains a better understanding of the present British constitutional framework in the context of Europe. The discussion is from a continental European viewpoint and through the eyes of a private and commercial lawyer. The completely different understanding of Britain and Europe about the nature of a constitution and the structure of a state becomes more apparent with Britain’s departure from the EU, which may also influence the future national cohesion of the UK itself, particularly the relationship between England and Scotland after Brexit.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/brexit-and-scotland-centralism-federalism-or-independence/F43A8E4F83D5E31F33111A25849B61C3

20 / 09 / 2019

The Spectres Haunting Europe: Reading Contemporary Catalan Nationalism through The Break-Up of Britain

Jerry White

Academia Europaea

This article reads contemporary Catalan nationalist discourse through the lens of Tom Nairn’s polemical classic The Break-Up of Britain. First published in 1977, that text presents key issues for understanding contemporary Catalonia. The first is the emergence of a national sentiment that is separate from that of anti-colonialism because it is characterized by a higher level of economic development than the place it is seeking to break from, but is the repository of a legitimate claim to self-determination. That is how Nairn sees the Northern Ireland–Éire relationship, and that is a good analogy for Spain–Catalonia. The second is the tension between what he sees as ‘indifferent’, that is to say strictly civic-political nationalism and a more linguistically or culturally-driven nationalism. This is also a key tension in Catalonia, where immigration has transformed the national movement towards an interculturalist ideology and a de facto bilingualism (with Catalan and Spanish) remains a key but strategically unacknowledged element of that movement. The third aspect of Break-Up, and the synthesis of the comparison, is the importance of federalism, which is key for Nairn in seeing a way forward for the constituent countries of the UK and long a crucial, if not the crucial, political element of catalanisme.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/spectres-haunting-europe-reading-contemporary-catalan-nationalism-through-the-breakup-of-britain/83900E3A2C078DE266F5A1A6415C81AC

20 / 09 / 2019

The Anthroposeen: The Invention of Linear Perspective as a Decisive Moment in the Emergence of a Geological Age of Mankind

Philipp Lepenies

Academia Europaea

The beginning of the Anthropocene has been inconclusively debated. Usually, its starting point is linked to the moment in which some measurable human physical impact, such as global carbon dioxide emissions, increased in an unprecedented manner. However, to grasp the fact that mankind became at some point the major change agent of the earth system it is important to identify how and when humans began to perceive their role as that of an active creator, capable of dominating and changing nature. Although no monocausal explanation exists, I argue that the invention of linear perspective in fifteenth-century Renaissance Italy was a major trigger. Linear perspective changed the way humans saw and interpreted the world around them. It fostered an anthropocentric worldview that placed humans in control of their physical environment, allowed the advancement of scientific methods and the ultimate disenchantment of the physical world. Linear perspective marks the beginning of the ‘Anthroposeen’ without which the Anthropocene would not have manifested itself in the accelerated way it has. This holds important lessons. It reminds us that to understand the nature of the Anthropocene, we have to understand the parameters that made us think, see and ultimately act the way we do.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/anthroposeen-the-invention-of-linear-perspective-as-a-decisive-moment-in-the-emergence-of-a-geological-age-of-mankind/0A3184EE2EC51A09C69F653B08785B25

20 / 09 / 2019

The EC/EU between the Art of Forgetting and the Palimpsest of Empire

Patrick Pasture

Academia Europaea

The history of European integration is usually presented as both a peace project and an economic endeavour. What is largely ignored is that it also had a colonial dimension. This article first recalls this largely forgotten history, asking why and how it could be erased from memory. It then explores ways in which the EU and its predecessors constituted a new postcolonial identity and how colonial legacies somehow reappear in policies and representations.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/eceu-between-the-art-of-forgetting-and-the-palimpsest-of-empire/5518C8F52EE387B5BDF252709BBC0AE7

20 / 09 / 2019

How to Write the History of Europe?

Jean-Frédéric Schaub

Academia Europaea

Unfortunately, historians everywhere, and notably in Europe today, accept fuelling nationalistic fantasies by rooting purported identities in a faraway past, by forging new sets of invented traditions, and by giving credence to the notion of what is truly ‘autochthonous’. Today, such an attitude is a robust obstacle against any writing of the history of Europe. The political tension that historians are subjected to can thus be summarized as: we must not forget the lessons of Eric Hobsbawm, Terence Ranger and their team on the ‘invention of traditions’, but, at the same time, we must not lend a deaf ear to the demands of illusory identity expressed by the voters of populist movements.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/how-to-write-the-history-of-europe/12F9F10A8C68D36796F22887DAB199ED

20 / 09 / 2019

Eurafrica: A Pan-European Vehicle for Central European Colonialism (1923–1939)

Benjamin J. Thorpe

Academia Europaea

‘Eurafrica’, the continental-scale fusion of Europe and Africa into one political entity, was first developed as a political concept in the 1920s by the Pan-European Union, and named as such in a 1929 article by its founder and leader Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi. Within five years, this neologism had become a commonplace, as Eurafrica exploded across public political discourse. This paper unpacks what Eurafrica entailed in its original expression, what made it a useful concept for the Pan-European Union to employ, and what made it so appealing to a wider (European) public. It does so with particular reference to the way in which Eurafrica was presented as a means of opening up colonialism to those European states that lacked their own colonies. Partly, this meant appealing to German colonialists resentful at the stripping of Germany’s colonies at Versailles. Crucially, however, it also meant appealing to the broader ‘historical injustices’ that meant that Central European countries did not have access to colonies, and promising a future in which these intra-European ‘injustices’ could be transcended and Central Europeans could thus become equal partners in Europe’s mission civilisatrice in Africa.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/eurafrica-a-paneuropean-vehicle-for-central-european-colonialism-19231939/8181FBDD59D32CFFDF2AA82B5C2A8E4A

20 / 09 / 2019

‘They Handle Negroes Just Like Us’: German Colonialism in Cameroon in the Eyes of Poles (1885–1914)

Jawad Daheur

Academia Europaea

This paper explores the Polish opinion about German colonialism in Africa in connection with the perception of Prussian rule ‘at home’. In late Imperial Germany, Prussian Poles tended to look at the German ventures in Africa with a very critical eye. Their interest in Cameroonian issues was due to the fact that both Poles and Cameroonians were facing the same difficulties at the same time, namely German attempts to eliminate local languages in schools and to take control of the lands. By establishing a link between Polish and Cameroonian suffering, Polish patriots wanted to make Poles aware of their political, economic and cultural subjection within a global context. In a certain way, this counter-hegemonic narration was supposed to deprovincialise the ‘Polish issue’ and make it part of the broader struggle against German imperial power. The Poles, however, did not support independence for Cameroon. They used the Cameroonian issues mainly polemically in order to advance their own cause in imperial Germany.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/they-handle-negroes-just-like-us-german-colonialism-in-cameroon-in-the-eyes-of-poles-18851914/8DCAC307DE211913841C181F474BC33E

20 / 09 / 2019

Central European Missionaries in Sudan: Geopolitics and Alternative Colonialism in Mid-Nineteenth Century Africa

Helge Wendt

Academia Europaea

The article gives an example of how actors and processes should be differentiated from each other in an imperial context that concerns both a European and a non-European region. Some of the ‘Austrian’ missionaries who worked in the Catholic mission in southern Sudan were of Slavic or Italian origin. Their double identity shaped the way they conceived their pastoral work. Nevertheless, these missionaries were not the only group of people who were engaged in this Austrian colonial endeavour in mid-nineteenth century Sudan.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/central-european-missionaries-in-sudan-geopolitics-and-alternative-colonialism-in-midnineteenth-century-africa/7EDCB845624F5A49EFD48E02B95F8EEB

20 / 09 / 2019

Beňovský on Madagascar: The Self-fashioning, Career and Knowledge Production of a Central European Actor in the French Colonial Empire

Damien Tricoire

Academia Europaea

In the eighteenth century, the French administration usually did not appoint foreigners to leading functions. The Upper Hungarian nobleman Móric Beňovský, who was commissioned by the French king to build a colony on Madagascar, was an exception. Soon, Beňovský developed fanciful accounts of his experience on Madagascar and eventually he became famous across Europe. His case raises the question about the conditions that foreigners had to fulfil in order to make a career in the French empire. This article seeks to answer the question of whether Beňovský’s Upper Hungarian origins contributed to shaping his career, self-fashioning, policy and knowledge production, that is, orientated these in a way that differed from the French colonisers. It claims that Beňovský chose to fictionalise his life and to conjure lies about his experiences on Madagascar because it was the only way to make a career in a system otherwise dominated by established networks of patronage. Furthermore, Beňovský’s fanciful information policy gives some insight into the way information was produced in the French empire: it shows that Versailles was very much dependent on a few informants, and that the logic of court patronage played a great role in knowledge production. Beyond that, the fact that Beňovský’s fantastic stories were considered trustworthy by the elite across the continent says a lot about European colonial imagination in the Enlightenment period.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/benovsky-on-madagascar-the-selffashioning-career-and-knowledge-production-of-a-central-european-actor-in-the-french-colonial-empire/15F2BC0E36F769DA57AA96F2908BED47

20 / 09 / 2019

Knowledge and Power: Rumphius’ Ambonese Herbal and Ambonese Curiosity Cabinet as Colonial Contact Zones

Esther Helena Arens, Charlotte Kießling

Academia Europaea

The early modern books on Ambonese natural history by G.E. Rumphius have mostly been analysed for their aesthetic form and scientific content. However, with the concept of contact zones as introduced by M.L. Pratt, these texts can also be read as historical sources about colonialism and slavery in the late seventeenth-century Moluccas. This article explores the traces of colonialism and slavery in Rumphius’ Ambonese Herbal (1740ff.) and the Ambonese Curiosity Cabinet (1705).

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/knowledge-and-power-rumphius-ambonese-herbal-and-ambonese-curiosity-cabinet-as-colonial-contact-zones/C87D0F5FF32F3FA277BDB6F61762D5A1

20 / 09 / 2019

The Strange Career of Johann Matthias Kramer: Transatlantic Migration, Language and the Circulation of Information in the Eighteenth Century

Mark Häberlein

Academia Europaea

This article examines the career of Johann Matthias Kramer, a language teacher and emigration agent, as a case study to illuminate the intersections between migration, colonialism, cultural transfer and the dissemination of information in the eighteenth century. Kramer’s career spanned diverse places and regions – his birthplace, Nuremberg, the commercial cities of Rotterdam and Hamburg, the university town of Göttingen and the North American colonies of Georgia and Pennsylvania – and it oscillated between two seemingly very different professions. The article argues, however, that both language teachers and emigration agents were highly mobile, usually lacked formal training, and had low reputations, but nonetheless helped to forge important social and cultural links.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/strange-career-of-johann-matthias-kramer-transatlantic-migration-language-and-the-circulation-of-information-in-the-eighteenth-century/95ACCC263BFF8B27CDE9EA6FC5004C18

20 / 09 / 2019

Twisted Ways of Commodities in the Early Modern Era and the Positioning of Poland on the Map of Colonialism

Dariusz Kołodziejczyk

Academia Europaea

This article discusses the position of Poland on the global map by focusing on the routes and impact of three selected ‘commodities’ that were transported to and from Poland in the early modern era, namely slaves, tobacco and silver coin. If studied in isolation, each of these ‘commodities’ assigns Poland a different role in the geography of the global market, work and know-how distribution. Only when studied together do they reveal the complex character of the relations between Central-Eastern Europe and its western and south-eastern neighbours, reaching as far as the New World and the Middle East.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/twisted-ways-of-commodities-in-the-early-modern-era-and-the-positioning-of-poland-on-the-map-of-colonialism/63AFA5628B55C80BDA13D6F384FEE3FD

20 / 09 / 2019

Hanseatic Merchants and the Procurement of Palm Oil and Rubber for Wilhelmine Germany’s New Industries, 1850–1918

Samuel Eleazar Wendt

Academia Europaea

This article analyses the reorientation of Hanseatic merchants’ involvement in world trade during the second half of the nineteenth and first decades of the twentieth centuries. This shift was influenced by the independence of former British and Iberian colonies in the Americas, which caused the implosion of colonial trade monopolies. The abolition of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, and the Scramble for Africa also allowed German commerce to obtain more direct access to markets in and raw materials from tropical regions. An examination of the commodity chains of rubber and palm oil/kernels reveals the great influence of Hanseatic merchant families (e.g. O’Swald, Schramm or Woermann) on determining and shaping the terms by which African and South American regions became incorporated into the emerging world economy.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/hanseatic-merchants-and-the-procurement-of-palm-oil-and-rubber-for-wilhelmine-germanys-new-industries-18501918/A3F759392A261261BCD5B47C6C67C9AA

20 / 09 / 2019

Central Europe and the Portuguese, Spanish and French Atlantic, Fifteenth to Nineteenth Centuries

Torsten dos Santos Arnold

Academia Europaea

Applying a comparative and cross-national approach, this article is based on case studies of four representative European Atlantic port cities, namely Nantes, Bordeaux, Lisbon and Cádiz, and their socio-economic relations with Hamburg, one of Central Europe’s most important marketplaces. Based on quantitative data of commodity flows towards and from the Atlantic basin, it also analyses the role of German and German-speaking merchant communities that were established in these metropolitan port cities. The article will show how these foreigners circumvented the respective monopolies that excluded them from direct trade with French, Portuguese and Spanish colonies. These monopolies crumbled only during the era of the Atlantic Revolutions and the disintegration of the respective empires.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/central-europe-and-the-portuguese-spanish-and-french-atlantic-fifteenth-to-nineteenth-centuries/4173A2FB733316A58195EB67D6F75D51

19 / 09 / 2019

Geography, Early Modern Colonialism and Central Europe’s Atlantic Trade

Klaus Weber

Academia Europaea

Only during the last decade or so has Germany been considered more systematically as a factor in European Expansion from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century. The effects of the Price Revolution – a decline in wages and prices stretching from the Iberian Peninsula to Central and Eastern Europe – favoured the growth of labour-intensive cottage industries, largely in the textile sector. Central Europe’s geographic features – reliable precipitation supports forestry and feeds rivers, providing hydro-energy for machines and transport lanes from hinterlands to maritime ports – favoured energy-intensive production of steel-, brass- and glass-ware, all destined for colonial markets and for the barter trade against slaves from the West African coast. Early on, these commodity flows and commercial networks had integrated German territories into the colonial empires of the Western sea powers, laying the groundwork for the colonial adventures of the Wilhelmine Empire.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/geography-early-modern-colonialism-and-central-europes-atlantic-trade/8D93A56B71D2955B796865146231264A

19 / 09 / 2019

Why Universities Better Invest in the Humanities

Theo D’haen

Academia Europaea

In the Western world, the humanities have been under pressure for the last two or three decades. There are various reasons for this, which have to do with the changed status of humanities disciplines within universities, but also with the public at large. Employment prospects are deemed slimmer for humanities graduates than for STEM graduates. Aging populations requiring more health and old age provisions, and globalization increasing economic competition, are leading to economization and rationalization in the world of academe, relegating the humanities often – quite naturally, so to speak – to the end of the funding chain. Still, there are good reasons to continue funding, and promoting, the humanities. These reasons have to do with questions of identity, but also of economics.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/why-universities-better-invest-in-the-humanities/B8B8E787DE6C492345D7F88C99F8D5BA

19 / 09 / 2019

Is the ‘Intention’ There? On the Impact of Scientism on Hermeneutics

Zhang Jiang

Academia Europaea

Ever since the mid-twentieth century, there has been a prevailing tendency of eliminating the author’s existence in his or her text, as well as the existence of his or her intention. The practice of negating the meaning of the author’s intention and thereby imposing arbitrary interpretations on the text to serve the critic’s own interpretive purpose, has led contemporary literary hermeneutics onto the wrong road of relativism and nihilism. It is sensible for us to identify an impact of scientism on such a hermeneutic tendency. However, no matter how we try to deny and dissolve the author’s intention, its being in the text is a hard fact that always determines the text’s quality and value and influences the readers’ understanding and interpretation. The author’s intention runs through the whole process of the text’s creation, displaying itself in all the plans and designs of the text, such as its language, structure and style. It is a false question to ask whether intention exists in literary creation, and the idea that the other person can be totally independent of the author’s intention to assert the meanings or significance of the text will finally lead us to nowhere but sheer subjective imagination. Any serious and responsible critic must research in depth to first bring out the author’s intention, and then bring out the text’s historical and social milieus. This is the foundational step towards fair and justified interpretation of the text. Since literary works are the objectification of the authors’ thoughts and mind power, we, whatever theories we are interested in, should give the author and his or her intention due respect. This is undoubtedly a scientific attitude toward literary studies.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/is-the-intention-there-on-the-impact-of-scientism-on-hermeneutics/B11452F5805EEAAE3EF9CF7FECDF2BD6

19 / 09 / 2019

New Confucianism, Science and the Future of the Environment

Chengzhou He

Academia Europaea

It is argued in this article that the dialogue between science and humanities is not just an option, but rather a necessary act. In China, New Confucianism has accomplished its creative transformation through its dialogue with science, and the development of science and technology has also benefited from humanities – New Confucianism included. In the global confrontation of growing environmental crisis, science alone cannot solve all the problems. What kind of role can New Confucianism play along with science in addressing the environmental issues? How will a re-interpretation of tianrenheyi (unity of man and nature), which is a core Confucian concept, contribute to the critique of anthropocentrism and the cross-cultural reformation of ecological thought? Bearing in mind both the cosmopolitan consciousness and the eco-environmental sensibility, a New Confucian ecological humanism is proposed and analysed in response to the global environmental problem.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/new-confucianism-science-and-the-future-of-the-environment/2FBBF13B2C8A7BBECD05311D10DB43D2

19 / 09 / 2019

Interdisciplinarity, History and Cultural Encounters

Svend Erik Larsen

Academia Europaea

Interdisciplinarity has entered the agenda of researchers, teachers and policy makers and will remain there in the future. This does not mean that interdisciplinarity is understood the same way, let alone is appreciated everywhere. Researchers are challenged by increasingly complex problems in culture, nature and society beyond disciplinary boundaries; higher education has to cater to a volatile job market where known disciplines no longer define their own niches in terms of topics or practices for their candidates; and decision makers are confronted with challenges that do not respect ideologies of political parties and reports based on mainstream knowledge. In this context, interdisciplinarity is an ongoing re-consideration of the creation, the communication and the application of knowledge uniting the perspectives of research, teaching and decision making. While most discussions on interdisciplinarity focus on its theoretical and methodological complexity in an exclusively contemporary perspective, this article will discuss interdisciplinarity in a historical perspective as central to European history of knowledge as well as in an intercultural perspective.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/interdisciplinarity-history-and-cultural-encounters/C761BC636A7A951F5AA4876BB734E5F2

19 / 09 / 2019

Humanities Encounters Science: Confronting the Challenge of Post-humanism

Ning Wang

Academia Europaea

Post-humanism has recently come to China and challenges traditional humanism and the humanities. The author first offers a reflection on the evolution of humanism in modern Chinese intellectual history. To the author, we are now in a ‘post-theoretical era’, in which the function of theory is no longer so powerful and ubiquitous as it used to be. It is then argued that the rise of the ‘post-humanist’ trend in the West during the past decades indicates that, in the present era, humankind is only one of many species on earth, whose existence and development, to a large extent, depend on natural law. At the same time, post-humanism tells us that humankind may no longer be able to control some of its own creations. The author concludes by calling for digital humanities to bridge the gap between science and humanities and to establish a new relationship between the two.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/humanities-encounters-science-confronting-the-challenge-of-posthumanism/5B18E190686B5E19907478665C900441

19 / 09 / 2019

Scientific Prometheanism and the Boundaries of Knowledge: Whither Goes AI?

Tianhu Hao

Academia Europaea

This article discusses John Milton’s Paradise Lost, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, and the contemporary film Ex Machina as a coherent group concerning the boundaries of knowledge and the perils of scientific Prometheanism. The development of AI (Artificial Intelligence) should be delimited and contained, if not curtailed or banned, and scientists ought to proceed in a responsible and cautious manner. An obsessive or excessive pursuit of knowledge, aiming to equal God and create humanoid beings, constitutes the essential feature of scientific Prometheanism, which can end in catastrophic destruction. Both Frankenstein and Ex Machina stringently critique scientific Prometheanism as one aspect of modernity, and expose the real dangers that AIs pose to the very existence of humanity and civilization. In Paradise Lost, Milton provides the epistemological framework for Frankenstein and Ex Machina. The article concludes that the union of science and arts in science fiction (films) can be very productive.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/scientific-prometheanism-and-the-boundaries-of-knowledge-whither-goes-ai/BA8D36EAEBDC404E1E95444F75BF232F

19 / 09 / 2019

‘Science’ and ‘Culture’ in University Settings. Areas of Overlap? Areas of Tension? Or, Areas of Mutual Complementarity?

Milena Žic Fuchs

Academia Europaea

On the one hand, ‘interdisciplinarity’ in all its formats, ranging from multi- to transdisciplinarity, has become the focal point of research agendas and a high priority of many funding bodies, while, on the other hand, universities by and large still remain discipline-oriented. This ‘tension’ is especially manifest between ‘science’ and ‘culture’ in the sense of bridging gaps between disciplines and research domains. The main roles of the Humanities and Social Sciences can be said to be the development of critical and independent thought, the identification and dissemination of important social and cultural values, as well as challenging widely held assumptions and beliefs. This article focuses on new ‘interpretations’ of knowledge seen as the fundamental link, which can, within university programmes, raise the awareness of the importance of the Humanities and Social Sciences on one hand, but, more importantly, also put into a much wider context the different ‘knowledges’ necessary for the contemporary understanding of how ‘science’ should be geared towards the individual, society, as well as the global community at large.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/science-and-culture-in-university-settings-areas-of-overlap-areas-of-tension-or-areas-of-mutual-complementarity/6125AE02324CEFD7F5228271CF414401

19 / 09 / 2019

The Mission and Responsibilities of Innovative Universities

Lei Zhang, Ji'An Liu, Zhang Jie

Academia Europaea

This article is adapted from a speech delivered at the ‘2016 University Presidents Forum’ on 7 April 2016. Modern human society confronts two great challenges: one from the conflict between nature and humankind, the other from the clash of different civilizations. As one of the most innovative components of society, research universities should shoulder the responsibilities for, and contribute to the sustainable development of, human society and the peaceful development of the world. One possible road to take for research universities is to accelerate building innovative universities, and hand-in-hand develop an innovation network with other innovative components of society. Here, the concept of an innovative university, beyond the perspective of a single innovative component, refers to a university with an innovation capacity as well as an organizer, connector and coordinator of various innovative components, (1) adding value through innovation and creating excellence; (2) acquiring the competitiveness for resources, and optimizing and upgrading itself; and (3) developing the capability of consolidating high quality resources through openness, sharing and collaboration. However, research universities should realize that neither the capacity of acquiring nor consolidating high quality resources can be achieved by an individual university or universities in a single region. That means future innovation should be made through networks. Only those who have access to the key nodes of the network can stand on the central stage of the global innovation system. Thus, an innovative university plays an irreplaceable role in the formation and function of such an innovation network to sustain its position in the global innovation system. These are the mission and responsibilities of the leading research universities.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/mission-and-responsibilities-of-innovative-universities/ACDCAF8CF05769A1F37D568C9231F3A2

19 / 09 / 2019

The Significance of the Humanities and Liberal Arts in Higher Education

Guoqiang Qiao

Academia Europaea

Two tendencies in present-day higher education in China, namely the neglect of the humanities and liberal arts and their incorporation of officialized programmes, are bringing about a change in the values that the humanities and liberal arts foster, and are making for unclear programming. A case in point is the practice that has identified higher education as a tool, overemphasizing its functions and ‘usefulness’ for the nation. It is reasonable to consider higher education from the perspective of national interests. Nonetheless, the author of the current article contends that the overemphasis on function and ‘usefulness’ runs counter to the nature of higher education that endeavours to cultivate a student’s humanity. The author will also argue that one of the principal methods for this humanization is to learn about human nature and to know how to follow one’s good conscience. That is, students have to be educated to know their essential human character and the various demands that are embedded in all intellectual and moral virtues and all language games, and abhor and refrain from any practices that violate them. In this sense, the humanities and liberal arts can provide various human experiences that would be a great help for students to know and to learn the above-mentioned human nature and virtues.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/significance-of-the-humanities-and-liberal-arts-in-higher-education/43AE1FDFB7F9EC6D794BD47D42E3DB92

19 / 09 / 2019

Montesquieu in the University: The Governance of World-class Institutions of Higher Education and Research

Lars Engwall

Academia Europaea

The point of departure for this article is the principle of the separation of powers, formulated long ago by the Frenchman Charles-Louis de Secondat Montesquieu. It is argued that this principle is important for the governance of universities, entailing a balance between university boards, university presidents and university senates. To this end, the article presents evidence about the governance structure of two highly-ranked US universities, UC Berkeley (UCB) and Stanford University. It reports on board compositions, the selection of presidents and the role of academic senates. The conclusion is that the principle of the balance of powers (‘shared governance’ as it is called at UCB) has served the two universities well. Therefore, despite differences in other conditions, such as their endowments, other universities might benefit from the evidence reported.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/montesquieu-in-the-university-the-governance-of-worldclass-institutions-of-higher-education-and-research/E51D4686F1201020D7587F264A70F4BE

19 / 09 / 2019

Liberal Arts Education and the Modern University

Yifeng Sun

Academia Europaea

The nature of liberal arts education merits renewed attention and consideration, especially in the context of the modern university in both Hong Kong and mainland China, where there is growing recognition that quality education standards should be improved, and an interdisciplinary approach to education and research is the way forward. The liberal arts spirit is an illustration of the power of inspiration and transformation, and through engaging with different perspectives, students are enabled and encouraged to pursue independent study, which boosts their creativity and critical thinking. As a catalyst and facilitator, liberal arts education that encompasses fresh global perspectives and connections has proved its worth over the years. However, since it is sometimes easy to lose sight of some of the fundamental principles essential to university education, we need to realize that too little interaction between science and the humanities has widened the two-culture divide, and the question is how to reconcile, or better still combine, the two. The two-culture debate, although suffering neglect for a long time in China, is of profound relevance and implications for the modern university. It can be observed that participatory interaction inherent in the dynamism of pedagogical engagement is increasingly promoted as the preferred mode of teaching students, who have benefited from broad-based learning as the embodiment of liberal education. Overcoming rigid disciplinary exclusiveness is positively correlated with empowering students with broad knowledge and skills to succeed in the future.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/liberal-arts-education-and-the-modern-university/412E3D24F16BF0E49926768845AAFD79

19 / 09 / 2019

Educational Sciences: A Crossroad for Dialogue among Disciplines

Erik De Corte

Academia Europaea

This article illustrates that due to the complexity of educational practices and of the educational system, their scientific study constitutes a crossroads for dialogue and possible conflicts among a variety of disciplines. The article focuses on school education. A first illustration shows how analyzing and improving classroom practices requires collaboration with and among different sub-disciplines of psychology. In the next section the recent domain of educational neuroscience is discussed as a crossroads of educational science, psychology and neuroscience. Thereafter, it is argued that research on mathematics education calls on the contribution of many disciplines such as mathematics, pedagogy, the psychology of cognition and math-related beliefs, and anthropology. The final example focuses on educational technology that requires interaction between educational science, psychology, computer science, economics, etc.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/educational-sciences-a-crossroad-for-dialogue-among-disciplines/C647D28EE2543C641B9F5E70ADB926FD

19 / 09 / 2019

Social Sciences, Humanities and Liberal Arts: China and the West

Liu Kang

Academia Europaea

For the most part, modern China’s institutions and modes of knowledge have been shaped and predominantly influenced by the West. Since the modern Chinese knowledge system is an integral and inseparable part of that dominant western system, an immanent critique will view Chinese problems not as extraneous, but as intrinsic to modernity, to the world-system or globalization. This article traces the genealogy of modern European modes of knowledge under the rubrics of ‘liberal arts’, as the origin and basis for modern China’s institutions and modes of knowledge, and then examines China’s ‘liberal arts’ as institution and modes of knowledge from the early years of the twentieth century to the present. The paper’s objective is to question the relationship between (Eurocentric) universalism and Chinese exceptionalism within the dominant modern Western institutions and modes of knowledge today.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/social-sciences-humanities-and-liberal-arts-china-and-the-west/2CB128F0A60A5AAC6DEF22F72EA1A106

19 / 09 / 2019

Two Cultures into One?

Wim Blockmans

Academia Europaea

Over the last few decades, two developments have brought fundamental changes to the study of the humanities. The digital revolution triggered the construction of huge databases, universally accessible and searchable on an unprecedented scale. As a consequence, new ways of thinking in wider contexts and organizing research on a larger scale came within reach of disciplines that had previously mostly been active on an individual level and focusing on particular phenomena. Moreover, applications of new scientific methods led to breakthroughs in fundamental humanities issues such as environmental and biological data that were essential for living conditions and for the formation of collective identities. The increased collaboration between disciplines led to major innovations.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/two-cultures-into-one/D260C54F1633D26A8210E4A8C77DFEAE

19 / 09 / 2019

Unbalanced Language Contact and the Struggle for Survival: Bridging Diachronic and Synchronic Perspectives on Nahuatl

Justyna Olko

Academia Europaea

Looking at the Spanish impact on Nahuatl both in its full historical trajectory and modern synchronic dimension, I focus on the differentiation between ‘balanced’, long-term language contact and ‘unbalanced’ contact leading to rapid language shift in contemporary indigenous communities. I discuss the connection between accelerated contact-induced language change and language endangerment and shift, highlighting and assessing the mutually interdependent extra- and inter-linguistic variables that influence and shape both processes. Of special importance is the synchronic variation linked to speakers’ proficiency that influences language transmission in the diachronic perspective. On the basis of extensive fieldwork and linguistic documentation I identify several types of Nahuatl speakers as agents of this accelerated language change which leads to individual attrition and shift at the community level. This kind of multidisciplinary approach, taking into account both historical and modern data, can also potentially be useful for other minority languages in the scenario of long-term contact with a dominant language.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/unbalanced-language-contact-and-the-struggle-for-survival-bridging-diachronic-and-synchronic-perspectives-on-nahuatl/D5B29E4DA102087AB4951F158A19EB6C

19 / 09 / 2019

Language Ideologies and Minority Language Education: Lessons from Brittany for Kashubia

Nicole Dołowy-Rybińska, Michael Hornsby

Academia Europaea

In many situations of minority language education, the focus has been on gains in the absolute numbers of speakers, with the result that less attention has been paid to the processes and linguistic outcomes associated with students in these educational programmes. In this article, we initiate a discussion on the revitalization situations in Brittany and Kashubia from a comparative perspective. In particular, we look at the different models of education in each of these regions and examine ethnographic data that highlight the attempts of students to attain legitimate ‘speakerhood’ of the minority languages in question. In particular, we take into the consideration the difficulties associated with these situations of attempted additive multilingualism when the general trend, among the majority populations, is toward standardized monolingualism. By way of a conclusion, we attempt to evaluate the different educational systems in both regions in terms of the production of future generations of ‘successful’ Kashubian and Breton speakers by examining the various language ideologies that are apparent in both situations of language revitalization.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/language-ideologies-and-minority-language-education-lessons-from-brittany-for-kashubia/EC92C810FBF6688E6377582112433774

19 / 09 / 2019

Awakening the Language and Speakers’ Community of Wymysiöeryś

Tomasz Wicherkiewicz, Tymoteusz Król, Justyna Olko

Academia Europaea

The town of Wilamowice (southern Poland) is the unique home to the community of speakers of Wymysiöeryś. The language enclave originates from Colonial Middle High German and – according to diachronic dialectological analyses – is made up of a sub-exclave of the so-called Bielitz-Bialaer Sprachinsel. As a result of social and political cataclysms brought by the Second World War and the following ban on and gap in its intergenerational transmission, it faced an inescapable language death. That doom, however, has been restrained by the activities of dedicated native speakers, with Tymoteusz Król (born in 1993) functioning as an eco- and sociolinguistic relay between the generation of last speakers passing away and, unexpectedly, a growing group of potential new speakers. The microlanguage, now spoken as native by fewer than 20 Wilamowiceans, and still without any official recognition at the administrative level, is experiencing an astonishing, but well-prepared and local culture-based revitalisation course. This article discusses the recent achievements and prospective challenges of the revival processes for Wymysiöeryś – from an internal (including T. Król as the youngest native speaker and intra-community researcher) and external yet engaged (J. Olko and T. Wicherkiewicz as participating academics) perspectives, including the recent results of activities undertaken within an integral revitalisation programme based on the successful collaboration of the community, two major universities in Poland, as well as the local school and municipal authorities. The programme covers all three levels of language planning: corpus, status and acquisition. Efficiently combining grassroots and top-down approaches, the collaborating actors also ground language revitalisation in the social, cultural and economical benefits of preserving and extending the local cultural heritage and linguistic landscape.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/awakening-the-language-and-speakers-community-of-wymysioerys/344D725FB56D4E46AF76E2A7DB66CAD9

19 / 09 / 2019

Purism, Variation, Change and ‘Authenticity’: Ideological Challenges to Language Revitalisation

Julia Sallabank

Academia Europaea

This paper is based on recent research into the small, highly endangered language Giernesiei (Guernsey, Channel Islands). 2 Language documentation has found unexpectedly rich variation and change in Giernesiei usage, not all of which can be accounted for by regional and age-related factors. At the same time, our research into language ideologies and efforts to maintain and revitalise Giernesiei has revealed deep-seated purist or ‘traditionalist’ language attitudes that resist and deny language change. This nostalgic view of language and culture can hyper-valorise ‘authentic’ traditions (arguably reinvented 3 ) and can lead to reluctance to share Giernesiei effectively with younger generations who might ‘change the language’, despite an overt desire to maintain it. This mismatch between ideologies and practices can be seen at language festivals, in lessons for children, and in the experiences of adult learners who were interviewed as part of a British Academy-funded project. I present a taxonomy of reactions to variation in Giernesiei, which confirms and extends the findings of Jaffe 4 in Corsica. I also discuss recent revitalisation efforts that try to bring together older and ‘new’ speakers and promote the role of adult learners and ‘re-activate’ semi-speakers. The findings support the view that full evaluation of language vitality should include documenting the processes and ideologies of language revitalisation.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/purism-variation-change-and-authenticity-ideological-challenges-to-language-revitalisation/81BEC92D8E7EEE1BCFBD1A9C63CDED39

19 / 09 / 2019

A ‘Small’ Language in Contact with a ‘Big’ One: The Loss of the Alienability Distinction in Tének (Mayan) under Spanish Influence

Elwira Sobkowiak, Marcin Kilarski

Academia Europaea

In this paper we discuss changes in possession marking in Tének (also Teenek, Huastec), a Mayan language spoken in Mexico. While traditionally only alienable possession is marked overtly with the suffix -il attached to the possessed noun, the marker of alienable possession is being extended in the speech of young and socially mobile Tének speakers to contexts traditionally lacking overt possession marking. We attribute this extension to changes in social and cultural patterns in Tének communities. Thus, we show that the choice of possession marking in modern Tének is sensitive to both semantic factors and the socio-cultural background of Tének speakers, including such factors as age as well as the degree of social mobility and exposure to Spanish. In addition, we interpret these developments in terms of ongoing simplification in Tének morphology. We thus take a more general view of grammatical categories as shaped not only by internal developments but also changing cultural and social patterns.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/small-language-in-contact-with-a-big-one-the-loss-of-the-alienability-distinction-in-tenek-mayan-under-spanish-influence/35CD054AB8D68974678ED43C929DE662

19 / 09 / 2019

On some endangered Sinitic languages spoken in Northwestern China

Alain Peyraube

Academia Europaea

This paper will examine one of the most characteristic syntactic properties of languages, namely the case system for the following three Sinitic languages spoken in Northwestern China: Línxià (or Hézhōu), Tāngwāng, Gāngōu, which have been sometimes viewed as ‘mixed languages’. An answer to the following main questions will be tentatively suggested in the conclusion: do we really have case suffixes in these languages (cases are a morphological notion) or simply thematic roles expressed by postpositions (thematic roles are a semantic notion)? Do we really have a Qinghai-Gansu linguistic area (Sprachbund), as has been suggested? Can these Sinitic languages be characterized as being mixed languages?

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/on-some-endangered-sinitic-languages-spoken-in-northwestern-china/84F614DAF0DF3C3F2F3C90FCD09483A7

19 / 09 / 2019

Independent, Dependent and Interdependent Variables in Language Decay and Language Death

Wolfgang U. Dressler

Academia Europaea

This contribution gives in its first part an overview on factors of the decay and death of whole languages, focusing on dependency relations between these factors. They are organised along the following dimensions: socio-political, socio-economic, sociocultural, socio-psychological, and linguistic dimensions. The order of these dimensions partially represents a causal chain from left to right, but with many feedback relations. The second part of this article deals with early (socio-)linguistic indicators of language decay and discusses in this respect massive and asymmetric borrowing from the dominant into the recessive language, the loss of productivity of word formation patterns in the latter (illustrated from Breton), changes in name-giving (doubtful), shift of ‘foreign accent’ from the dominant to the recessive language, borrowing of morphological and syntactic patterns (inconclusive).

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/independent-dependent-and-interdependent-variables-in-language-decay-and-language-death/1CFEF0BA1D54ACD3BB792064F51C7DC3

19 / 09 / 2019

On the Brout–Englert–Higgs–Guralnik–Hagen–Kibble Mechanism in Quantum Gravity

Gerard 't Hooft

Academia Europaea

Local gauge invariance can materialise in different ways in theories for quantised elementary particles. It is less well-known, however, that a quite similar situation also occurs in the Einstein–Hilbert formalism for the gravitational forces. This may have important consequences for quantum theory. At first sight one may even think that it renders gravity renormalisable, just as happens in local gauge theories, but in gravity the truth is more puzzling.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/on-the-broutenglerthiggsguralnikhagenkibble-mechanism-in-quantum-gravity/38C7E019C00D18AD35BD971BFAE859A9

19 / 09 / 2019

Perspectives in Particle Physics after the Discovery of the Higgs Boson

Guido Tonelli

Academia Europaea

Many implications of the discovery of the Higgs boson are discussed, together with a short overview of the new challenges in particle physics. The paper also presents a non-exhaustive review of the current plans in the quest for physics beyond the Standard Model at high-energy accelerators.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/perspectives-in-particle-physics-after-the-discovery-of-the-higgs-boson/A97AC306184D2F9B9C56D5149062D967

18 / 09 / 2019

Gravitational Waves: Physics at the Extreme

Jo Van Den Brand

Academia Europaea

Last year, the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration announced the first detection of a gravitational wave. A century after the fundamental predictions of Einstein, the first direct observation of a binary black hole system merging to form a single black hole was made. The observations provide unique access to the properties of spacetime at extreme curvatures: the strong-field and high-velocity regime. It allows unprecedented tests of general relativity for the nonlinear dynamics of highly disturbed black holes. LIGO and Virgo realized a global interferometer network, and more detections were made, including a signal from a binary neutron star merger. The scientific impact of the various detections will be explained. In addition, key technological aspects will be addressed, such as the interferometric detection principle, optics, as well as sensors and actuators. Attention is paid to Advanced Virgo, the European detector near Pisa, which came online in 2017. We end with a discussion of the largest challenges in the field, including plans for the Einstein Telescope, a large underground observatory for gravitational-wave science.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/gravitational-waves-physics-at-the-extreme/682B9F5DFFF293469C1C39CF6AB0EF54

18 / 09 / 2019

Low-energy Tests of Fundamental Physics

Dmitry Budker

Academia Europaea

This article presents a personal perspective on why it is interesting and important to test all kinds of fundamental laws and search for as-yet-undiscovered particles and interactions using laboratory-based non-accelerator techniques. Such room-scale experiments are already spearheading discovery, and can be expected to become even more important as accelerators reach seemingly inevitable limits.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/lowenergy-tests-of-fundamental-physics/883830DB7DF184618A8907E97F86E732

18 / 09 / 2019

The Search for Dark Matter

Laura Baudis

Academia Europaea

The dark matter problem is almost a century old. Since the 1930s evidence has been growing that our cosmos is dominated by a new form of non-baryonic matter that holds galaxies and clusters together and influences cosmic structures up to the largest observed scales. At the microscopic level, we still do not know the composition of this dark, or invisible, matter, which does not interact directly with light. The simplest assumption is that it is made of new particles that interact with gravity and, at most, weakly with known elementary particles. I will discuss searches for such new particles, both space- and Earth-bound, including those experiments placed in deep underground laboratories. While a dark matter particle has not yet been identified, even after decades of concerted efforts, new technological developments and experiments have reached sensitivities where a discovery might be imminent, albeit certainly not guaranteed.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/search-for-dark-matter/B1EF23ECC5C3291D5FBB79F52F127256

18 / 09 / 2019

Transitional Women in the Transnational Era: Female Voices through Art

Silvia Pellicer-Ortín

Academia Europaea

This article supports the belief that transnational and glocal mechanisms have drastically affected identity and memory formation processes; thus, very diverse memories regarding complex episodes of migration or trauma are currently regarded as connected through multidirectional and cross-cultural patterns. Drawing on the fields of Trauma and Memory Studies, which consider the therapeutic role of art to represent and abreact troubled individual and collective experiences, the new hybrid identities born from this exchange and relationality have proved to demand new forms of representation. In particular, numerous groups of transitional women have recently fostered transnational engagements of womanhood through their creative works. Thus, some contemporary examples will be provided to show how art can be an empowering tool for contemporary transitional women to acquire a voice as well as a promoter of empathy for the modern glocal subject.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/transitional-women-in-the-transnational-era-female-voices-through-art/08C8F5D33DADF31DF7D72F57DE40C349

18 / 09 / 2019

Why Earthquakes Threaten Two Major European Cities: Istanbul and Bucharest

Gregory A. Houseman

Academia Europaea

Istanbul and Bucharest are major European cities that face a continuing threat of large earthquakes. The geological contexts for these two case studies enable us to understand the nature of the threat and to predict more precisely the consequences of future earthquakes, although we remain unable to predict the time of those events with any precision better than multi-decadal. These two cities face contrasting threats: Istanbul is located on a major geological boundary, the North Anatolian Fault, which separates a westward moving Anatolia from the stable European landmass. Bucharest is located within the stable European continent, but large-scale mass movements in the upper mantle beneath the lithosphere cause relatively frequent large earthquakes that represent a serious threat to the city and surrounding regions.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/why-earthquakes-threaten-two-major-european-cities-istanbul-and-bucharest/D62417ACA8D200D317D7F88AC4DE4E4A

18 / 09 / 2019

Disorder and Public Governance

Sophie Body-Gendrot

Academia Europaea

In spite of all their assets and resources, global cities (to be understood as a concentration of global capital players along with a large diversity of other presences) have disorder wired into the urban space itself. There are contrasted understandings of public disorder and of its links with globalization. Some disorder is a necessary step in the adjustment of change. Urban space is then a political resource for all kinds of grievances, given coverage by the media and by the internet. The police are an essential piece in their own interaction with protesters. The ritualized nature of public confrontations should be underlined. France offers a good illustration of this phenomenon with its approach to order maintenance. Police officers’ ability to use or not use force, to distribute social status and to categorize their opponents in dealing with order reveals that the police’s role lies at the root of political order and the claims a state makes upon its people for deference to rules, laws and norms. Recent uprisings unveil the role played by urban space and by the empowerment it provides for people assembled together to make claims. Civil societies’ capacity of resistance to decisions or processes perceived as harmful should not be downplayed. New forms of religious terrorism however mark a new chapter in the links of globalization and disorder. Lots of unknowns emerge and we need to understand and accept unpredictability and even embrace it in order to make sense of it in the future. My assumption is that some current forms of public disorder are not just a repetition of past disorder and that we see new patterns emerging.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/disorder-and-public-governance/0A1E3C49B022E5E9ABE673D5720A2EF7

18 / 09 / 2019

Reproducibility of Published Research

Johannes Klumpers

Academia Europaea

Recent articles have put into question the reproducibility of published research and have allocated some of the blame for un-reproducibility on a lack of integrity. This is a matter of major concern for the European Commission, and especially for its Scientific Advice Mechanism Unit. This article gives the view of the Head of that Unit.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/reproducibility-of-published-research/93C52E97D5680BBFD7E5F94BF3573AE3

18 / 09 / 2019

From Mars to the Multiverse

Martin Rees

Academia Europaea

Unmanned spacecraft have visited the other planets of our Solar System (and some of their moons), beaming back pictures of varied and distinctive worlds – but none propitious for life. However, prospects are far more interesting when we extend our gaze to other stars. Most stars are orbited by retinues of planets. Our home Galaxy contains a billion planets like the Earth. Do some of these have biospheres? Moreover, our Galaxy is one of billions visible with a large telescope – all the aftermath of a cosmic ‘big bang’ 13.8 billion years ago. More astonishing still, ‘our’ big bang may not have been the only one. The remarkable advances in recent decades are primarily owed to new engineering and technology. Armchair theory alone doesn’t get us far.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/from-mars-to-the-multiverse/D855021C8B04FD92D9CB864C5A97B199

18 / 09 / 2019

Planet Earth and Humanity

Herman Verstappen

Academia Europaea

The earth, a futility in space, is the only home for all humans and, at present, the theatre of the globalization of our society. Humanity has always been wondering about the origin of our blue planet. This is rather irrelevant for everyday life however. What really matters is that all of us can live in harmony and diversity on ‘Mother Earth’ and preserve our environment for future generations. Our planet is inhabited by an amazing variety of living creatures, among which at present are 7 billion humans. This number has risen at an alarming rate for more than a century and will reach the 10 billion mark around the year 2100. But whether the earth resources can cope with the growing demands is most uncertain. What will be our common future? This global issue has been the focus of the Reports of the so-called Club of Rome, 1 the Brundtland Report, 2 etc, but the responses of society are as yet inadequate. Science and technology can now unravel the many subtle interrelations between geosphere, atmosphere and biosphere and monitor the worldwide growing impact of human activities on the environment. 3 Earth observation from aerospace and geo-information systems have opened new vistas in this field. It is evident that there are limits to growth and that the present ‘rape of the earth’ should be stopped and a master plan for global sustainability be made. This plan should not be imposed top-down but be rooted in our free will and thus have a polycentric structure. The political agenda for globalization should not be a flywheel for economic growth but be oriented to the tripartite: sustainability–social balance–economic requirements. Can we make this happen?

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/planet-earth-and-humanity/57EA6440FF49B2A248896F0F6A3D1F50

18 / 09 / 2019

How to Cope with Working in an Open-space Lab?

Marco Pautasso, Wopke Van Der Werf

Academia Europaea

Open-space labs and research environments are increasingly common worldwide. They are supposed to facilitate interactions among researchers, but can be disruptive to those who need to be in a quiet environment in order to concentrate. This problem is increasingly felt across the natural, medical and social sciences, has a clear interdisciplinary and cross-cultural relevance, but has been the focus of limited attention. We propose some simple suggestions for researchers struggling in an open-space lab, based on a literature review and our experience in open spaces in various labs and countries (Australia, China, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland, the UK and the USA) as undergrads, PhD students, postdocs, researchers and (W. van der Werf) professors. Our aim is to help researchers working in open-space offices and labs with some straightforward solutions that will make their lives and work easier.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/how-to-cope-with-working-in-an-openspace-lab/45356CB5940A1F1E29114BC6DA8BB765

18 / 09 / 2019

Emigrants and Mestizos in Twenty-first Century Europe

Armando Gnisci

Academia Europaea

By the end of this century the majority of the European population will consist of ‘mestizos’. The majority of western intellectuals and politicians are still unprepared for this imminent change that will introduce a new Europe shaped by immigrants and mestizos. This essay seeks to reflect upon the possible implications in building a new twenty-first century Europe by approaching the issue through a historical and theoretical lens. I conclude by reflecting on the coming of millions of immigrants to Europe. This new quasi-European group is creating the melting pot of the twenty-first century, which I see as a eutopic project. Eutopia involves the idea of a just place where we can all live well together, and it offers us hope and a viable way to approach the impending European Transculturation. Overall, this article considers the phenomenon of European immigration in a constructive way, because immigrants and mestizos offer us the important possibility of a Europe decolonized from ourselves and together with them.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/emigrants-and-mestizos-in-twentyfirst-century-europe/D845FA27337AD1858D1625586151312D

18 / 09 / 2019

The Idea of Europe as the Point of Encounter between Power and Freedom, Interests and Universal Values: A Consideration of Kissinger’s and Ratzinger’s Visions of Europe

Mary Frances McKenna

Academia Europaea

The aim of this article is to contribute to thinking on pre-political foundations of secular societies. I do so through the idea of Europe. The importance of pre-political foundations relates to power and freedom, specifically how freedom truly can be freedom and not ultimately power. The paper includes two sections: Section 1 discusses Europe’s Westphalian system as the model for global international relations. Henry Kissinger’s proposal that a modern Westphalian system should be adopted by the international community, as outlined in his 2014 World Order Reflections on the Character of Nations and the Course of History, is explored and critiqued. Section 2 looks at an alternative vision of Europe as the global template which addresses many of the open issues identified in Kissinger’s proposal. Joseph Ratzinger/Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI sees Europe as a historical and cultural idea with, as pre-political foundation, the primacy of rationality as creative reason. Ratzinger’s vision does not displace Kissinger’s; rather it informs it. Core to this discussion are freedom, power, interests and universal values, specifically how these four components interact and can be managed to produce positive constructive outcomes; ultimately these interactions relate to the pre-political foundations that orientate societies.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/idea-of-europe-as-the-point-of-encounter-between-power-and-freedom-interests-and-universal-values-a-consideration-of-kissingers-and-ratzingers-visions-of-europe/EB9F9A1B9EDD0E2B98163F5138FF4CAD

18 / 09 / 2019

Vladimir Putin’s Aspiration to Restore the Lost Russian Empire

Chaim Shinar

Academia Europaea

In this article, I argue that the Russian leader, Vladimir Putin, by his political actions in Eastern Europe, the Baltic States and Central Asian countries, and his current actions in Ukraine, strives to re-establish the nineteenth-century Russian Empire, ignoring the principle of international law that protects the sovereignty of each nation-state over its territory. In order to achieve his goals Putin uses ‘soft force’ and social fermentation in Russian-speaking ‘near abroad’ nation-states of the former Soviet Union. He also uses a policy of weakening the economy of the target countries and uses the Russian chauvinism and irredentism as the basis of his policy.

Russia

18 / 09 / 2019

No, Prime Minister: PhD Plagiarism of High Level Public Officials

Theodor Tudoroiu

Academia Europaea

Based on a public office definition of corruption, this article uses the case studies of doctoral plagiarism of German Minister of Defence Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg, Hungarian President Pàl Schmitt, Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta, and Russian President Vladimir Putin in order to show that, by shattering citizens’ confidence in and respect for political class, political parties, state institutions and rule of law, academic plagiarism of high-ranking politicians intertwines with and enforces the most serious democratic failures in their respective countries: degeneration of political culture in Germany, nationalist authoritarian trends in Hungary, a culture of corruption in Romania, and outright dictatorship in Russia. As such, this specific type of plagiarism goes far beyond academia. It represents a direct, aggressive, and effective threat against democracy itself.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/no-prime-minister-phd-plagiarism-of-high-level-public-officials/2C8A65CEC80CAC9914236F775ECBA0B3

18 / 09 / 2019

Incident-driven Democracy at Europe’s Edge. The Case of Bosnia-Herzegovina

Yves Dejaeghere, Peter Vermeersch

Academia Europaea

In recent years, several instances of social protest in Europe have transformed into new initiatives for citizens’ participation (e.g. citizens’ assemblies, deliberative forums, etc). Can such a transformation also take place in the more volatile political settings of a post-conflict democratizing state? We turn our attention to the plenums in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which were spontaneously organized citizens’ assemblies in the spring of 2014. We conclude that these plenums were a form of incident-driven democracy. In a country where the regular institutions of representative democracy continue to be widely mistrusted and civil society organizations, which normally have a mitigating role between citizens and state institutions in times of crisis, are weak, untrustworthy or absent, such incidental institutions have an important role to play. Their effect in the short term may be limited, but if new opportunities arise they may function as a useful memory for activists, a model for citizens’ participation outside elections, and therefore an instigator of further democratization.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/incidentdriven-democracy-at-europes-edge-the-case-of-bosniaherzegovina/D70EB5B2E05EA28BC793E0C95529A4D6

18 / 09 / 2019

Biased Elites, Unfit Policies: Reflections on the Lacunae of Roma Integration Strategies

Margareta Matache

Academia Europaea

In this article, I argue that policymakers employed unconscious biases and racist beliefs in the formulation and the implementation of the current EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies (ʻEU Roma Frameworkʼ) and its corresponding national strategies. Using Critical Race Theory, I explore how these policies have reinforced the commonly held belief in the need to civilize and otherwise change the habits of the Roma, and consequently have further reinforced the power imbalance between the Roma and the dominant majority groups (hereinafter used interchangeably with ʻnon-Romaʼ). I analyse examples of Roma versus universal policies comparatively, emphasizing biases in formulation, implementation, and discourse. I show that the objectives of the EU Roma Framework and national Roma strategies toward Roma education involve ethnic presuppositions and are far less ambitious than the avowed Europe 2020 strategy; this policy mismatch will likely lead to further educational discrepancies post-2020. Finally, I conclude that policies focused on the Roma are doomed to fail if no prior and concurrent actions are taken to change prejudiced attitudes and the behaviours of non-Roma, in particular those biases influencing policy formulation and implementation.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/biased-elites-unfit-policies-reflections-on-the-lacunae-of-roma-integration-strategies/4B845F1F804B1FAB9901385FB5ABEFC1

18 / 09 / 2019

The Irrelevance of Political Party Differences for Public Finances – Evidence from Public Deficit and Debt in Portugal (1974–2012)

André Corrêa D'Almeida, Paulo Reis Mourao

Academia Europaea

This paper attempts to empirically test whether inter-party political differences impact public finances in Portugal differently. Focused on public debt and on government budget deficit, and using data since 1974 for several variables, this paper applies econometric modelling to show that inter-party differences have had, until now, no significant impacts on the public finances’ performance in Portugal. In this context, this paper aims at dispelling some myths regarding the ‘value’ of a policy process based on political intrigue, enmity and a discourse of confrontation around differentiated political parties’ merits in modern democracies.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/irrelevance-of-political-party-differences-for-public-finances-evidence-from-public-deficit-and-debt-in-portugal-19742012/A94107D4814C77E956CFD5A6F4CDBFB5

18 / 09 / 2019

The Prospects for the Future of European Union–African Union Relations in Uncertain Times

Conrad Rein

Academia Europaea

The importance of Africa for Europe was highlighted in the 1950 Schuman Declaration. Although the overarching framework for relations between the European Union and Africa is embedded in the 2000 Cotonou Agreement, cooperation between the European Union and Africa became increasingly institutionalized through the European Union–Africa Summits of 2000, 2007, 2010 and 2014, during which political leaders from both sides made strong rhetorical commitments to a strategic partnership. Yet, for the wider public, the relationship between the European Union and Africa appears to be both obscure and complex. The fifth European Union–Africa Summit is scheduled to take place in Ivory Coast in November 2017. This article will provide an overview of the development of European Union–Africa relations that coincided with the emergence of the African Union, the successor of the Organisation of African Unity. The so-called ‘strategic partnership’ between the European Union and the African Union represents the most comprehensive partnership the African Union has with any non-African actor. By highlighting current challenges affecting both, such as irregular migration, this article will, however, demonstrate that cooperation between the two is limited and somewhat lacking in strategic direction.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/prospects-for-the-future-of-european-unionafrican-union-relations-in-uncertain-times/EC2CEFF41102F0BE5DAFA82B6E106025

18 / 09 / 2019

The Social Dimension in EU Free Trade Agreements: ASEAN Perspectives

Hoang Ha Hai

Academia Europaea

This article analyses the positions of ASEAN countries on provisions of environmental and social sustainability included in the EU free trade agreements (FTA). In the EU’s new generation FTAs with ASEAN countries, there has been a notable and systematic EU approach of linking international labour conventions and multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) in its trade agreements, which reflects its ambition to play a significant role in ‘harnessing globalization’. However, during trade negotiations, contradictory positions between two sides originate from their different political, socio-economic and cultural backgrounds. When considering the developing countries’ objections to the issue from an ASEAN perspective, three main decisive points can be identified: the exclusive reliance on economic cost-related arguments, different perceptions of the trade-labour/environment nexus, and political and cultural-relativist arguments. Practical findings show that the EU faces resistance to this linkage from the ASEAN countries, which weakens its ability to promote universal social norms through trade.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/social-dimension-in-eu-free-trade-agreements-asean-perspectives/B37552F11DFD46F725EDE266E5D66760

18 / 09 / 2019

Brexit and its Implications for European Integration

Chih-Mei Luo

Academia Europaea

On the eve of 60th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome, the UK voted to withdraw from the EU (so-called Brexit). The implications for European integration and EU policies are far from clear and require further investigation. This paper aims to answer: what does Brexit imply for European integration? What messages were sent to the EU from the UK referendum? Did EU leaders interpret these messages and implications correctly and did they respond with the right policy? After examining the competing interpretations, this paper argues that the sharp divisions between different socio-economic classes shown in voting behaviour highlight the imperative of addressing economic inequality and distributive injustice, which are rooted in the structural flaws of EU governance and have been aggravated by the mismanagement of the Euro crisis. To move European integration forward and to keep a ‘political Europe’ sustainable, a ‘social Europe’ making an ‘economic Europe’ more inclusive and fair is required.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/brexit-and-its-implications-for-european-integration/4FED24E88103C76339A2D4B538AE63C4

18 / 09 / 2019

Kublai Khan in the Eyes of Marco Polo

Na Chang

Academia Europaea

This article will shed new light on the already crowded area of Marco Polo research, by examining the perspective of Polo, his direct observation of Kublai Khan and Yuan China, as revealed in The Travels of Marco Polo. The paper analyses the sources of Polo’s perspective on the people he encountered on his travels in foreign lands. It argues that Polo’s ideas were shaped by his cultural background, personal experience and his own interests. Then it examines how the work presents Kublai Khan himself, as well as the Yuan empire’s monetary system, its waterway trade and its ethnic policy. The result of this investigation shows that Polo was an acute observer; he pointed out occasions of misrule despite his adoration of Kublai Khan.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/kublai-khan-in-the-eyes-of-marco-polo/DAE80E6C2A151647E19959F687C5192B

18 / 09 / 2019

Counterfactual History and the First World War

R C Van Caenegem

Academia Europaea

In the current article the author aims to answer four specific questions. (1) What would have happened if Austria and Serbia had not gone to war in July 1914, which implies an exercise in counterfactual history, and the study of the probable outcome if events had taken a different course? (2) What exactly was Austria’s war aim? (3) What precisely was Britain’s war aim? (4) What would have happened if Britain had stayed out of the continental war?

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/counterfactual-history-and-the-first-world-war/D18EE7290F05B56406876EE44098BFCA

18 / 09 / 2019

Spengler’s Prussian Socialism

Ben Lewis

Academia Europaea

Oswald Spengler (1880–1936) was one of the most significant thinkers of the Weimar Republic, Germany’s first democracy. His work, notably the two-volume, 1200-page Der Untergang des Abendlandes (Decline of the West, 1918/22), had a profound influence on the intellectual discourses of the time in Germany and beyond. 1 Yet, despite the high esteem in which he was held by his contemporaries, his thought has been seriously under-researched. In English, only four major studies have appeared in the last 70 years. 2 This is all the more surprising in that the historical period in which he wrote has been extensively covered by both English- and German-language scholars and that some of the thinkers who drew critically on his ideas, such as Heidegger and Adorno, have become household names in Germany intellectual history.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/spenglers-prussian-socialism/4CDE1B91966B13254F94626B4DBAFE74

18 / 09 / 2019

Economic Pull Factors versus Political Push Factors: A Descriptive Analysis of Multidimensional Relations between Russia and Turkey

Haldun Çanci

Academia Europaea

This article analyses the economic cooperation and political disagreements between Russia and Turkey, focusing on the Putin–Erdogan (2003–2014) period. The analysis depends therefore on economic, socio-cultural, military and political dimensions of the relations between the two neighbouring countries. The article aims to contribute to efforts that try to comprehend the past, present, and future of Russian–Turkish relations. It can be mentioned that Russian–Turkish relations have both positive and negative aspects, and the crucial questions in this respect are: Will the pragmatism stimulated by economic expectations be sufficient to ignore political paradoxes? Are further political relations, such as strategic alliances and/or partnerships, possible between these two countries?

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/economic-pull-factors-versus-political-push-factors-a-descriptive-analysis-of-multidimensional-relations-between-russia-and-turkey/B708C3F64C83652F75FA48A9EA2DCC5A

17 / 09 / 2019

Military Expenditures and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern EU Countries: Evidence from the Post-Cold War Era

Mert Topcu, İlhan Aras

Academia Europaea

Although the relationship between military expenditures and economic growth is well documented for the old members of the European Union, empirically little is known for the new members. Thus, the goal of this paper is to investigate the economic impact of military expenditures in Central and Eastern European countries employing panel cointegration and causality methods for the period 1993–2013. Findings indicate that the variables in question do not move together in the long run and the direction of causality in the short run is from economic growth to military expenditures. The implications of the results for international relations are discussed.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/military-expenditures-and-economic-growth-in-central-and-eastern-eu-countries-evidence-from-the-postcold-war-era/5FC12A137F811104831CFC827FD263D6

17 / 09 / 2019

Crisis and Inequality in the European Union

Ignacio Amate-Fortes, Almudena Guarnido-Rueda, Agustín Molina-Morales

Academia Europaea

The objective of this work is to analyse the factors that influence a greater or lesser inequality in income distribution in the 27 EU countries, paying particular attention to the effect that the economic crisis has had. For this purpose we have used panel data covering a period of 16 years (from 1996 to 2011, inclusive), and we have introduced additional variables over and above those normally used, such as the ideology of the governing party, the economic freedom index, as well as the ‘crisis’ variable. The results obtained enable us to conclude that while the economic crisis has not necessarily caused a worsening in inequality, the response of European governments by means of social policy has not so far proved effective in the fight against the lack of equality in income distribution.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/crisis-and-inequality-in-the-european-union/2696DA787F635BC1FF718AA23188DDD4

17 / 09 / 2019

Corruption, Reform and the Euro

Paul Caruana-Galizia

Academia Europaea

Most policymakers and academics predicted that the European monetary union would lead to economic and institutional modernizaon in its least productive members – Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain. In fact, apart from Ireland, these countries became even more corrupt and their governments even less effective. This paper suggests an explanation that links the reluctance of peripheral countries to reform with the increase in their corruption levels. It also argues that their societies were stuck in a collective action problem: individuals have understood that corruption is antithetical to institutional quality and reform, but, as they cannot trust each other to refrain from corrupt practices, they stand to lose individually from not being corrupt themselves. Monetary union was seen as an external authority that would resolve this problem. Yet weak EU and eurozone monitoring and sanctioning discouraged the formation of social norms while making it attractive for formerly non-corrupt actors to engage in corruption, given the low risk of being caught. Survey evidence supports growth in perceptions of corruption and bribery, along with the weakening of social trust, trust in the police and in politicians across the periphery after the euro’s introduction.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/corruption-reform-and-the-euro/A7434AEF96D114216D8EEBB3090EA03A

17 / 09 / 2019

The Rise of Populist Right-wing Parties in the 2014 European Parliament: Election and Implications for European Integration

Chih-Mei Luo

Academia Europaea

The 2014 European Parliament (EP) election resulted in the rise of populist right-wing parties (PRPs). This paper aims to answer: why PRPs were able to rise in the 2014 EP election; what messages were delivered by the election results regarding European integration; and whether or not policy-makers addressed the messages correctly with the right policy responses? After examining the competing interpretations, this paper argues that a deep disillusionment and crisis of trust in the political establishment, which derived from the long neglect of deteriorating distributional justice and fairness in European integration, which became acute after the euro crisis mismanagement, explains the 2014 EP election results. This paper, accordingly, argues that policy redirection of EU economic governance and the addressing of a ‘social Europe’ are required to regain political trust. After assessing the policy responses taken by the EU, an economic Europe is expected to revive, but the required social Europe will still remain absent.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/rise-of-populist-rightwing-parties-in-the-2014-european-parliament-election-and-implications-for-european-integration/90E8341171F478075E52E0F5DF643D9E

17 / 09 / 2019

Migration Patterns and Core–Periphery Relations from the Central and Eastern-European Perspective

Ibolya Török

Academia Europaea

The aim of the paper is to present the current trends in the migration flows of Central and Eastern-European (CEE) countries in the light of socio-economic transition and core-periphery relations. To view migration as a broader process of social and economic development, post-accession mobility information will be analysed within a multi-scalar approach, across time and space, considering first the migration pattern from the CEE countries towards other EU regions in general, and then with a special emphasis on Romania in the light of the 2007 EU enlargement process. The spatial variation of migration was investigated using Moran’s I and Gi* statistics, which is a useful tool for identification of spatial patterns. Alongside the analysis of migration processes between receiving and sending areas (core and periphery regions) the author will discuss how the position of the core and periphery could change, with economic development taking place in a number of periodic waves. Based on the transnationalism paradigm, the author will also highlight the impact of migrants’ changed mobility practices and behaviour on the locality of origin.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/migration-patterns-and-coreperiphery-relations-from-the-central-and-easterneuropean-perspective/F9C6A2F1763A1E65BFE36F7BC5876036

17 / 09 / 2019

A Tale of Two Cities: Aleppo and Istanbul

Ayhan Kaya

Academia Europaea

There are 7.6 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Syria, and an additional 5 million people have taken refuge in Syria’s immediate neighbourhood: Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan and Iraq. Among these countries, due to its open border policy, Turkey has received the largest number of Syrian refugees. As of 31 August 2016, there are more than 3 million Syrian refugees in Turkey. This article will concentrate on the findings of a recent qualitative and quantitative study conducted among Syrian refugees in Istanbul, with a particular focus on their strong attachment to this city. I shall claim that historical, cultural and religious forms of affinity are likely to particularly attach the Sunni-Muslim-Arab-Syrians originating from Aleppo province to Istanbul. This article is expected to contribute to the discipline of Refugee Studies by shedding light on the historical and human elements, which are often the missing elements in such analysis.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/tale-of-two-cities-aleppo-and-istanbul/E118E6489C0D07BDBB992EA793FF918D

17 / 09 / 2019

Of War and Peace: A European Technological Tale

Esteve Sanz

Academia Europaea

This article studies the formation of the European Union as a technological discourse. It traces the technological narrative from the origins of the Community until the current debates around the internet and the future of the Union. In search of a renewed telos, the European rhetoric of an open internet could express the commitment of the EU to re-link its popular legitimacy away from liberal abstractions and closer to the concrete, subjective experience of individuals, actively sharing a peaceful, dense and diverse democratic life.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/of-war-and-peace-a-european-technological-tale/DEBE435C4463DDDC97F6C0D0E0231116

17 / 09 / 2019

EU–UN Relations. How much of a Partnership?

Rafał Willa

Academia Europaea

The number, scale and variety of threats to the safety of the contemporary world are forcing multilateral cooperation to tighten. The United Nations is the main forum of such cooperation and has a vast spectrum of powers. In addition the European Union tries to act in a similar way, although on a much smaller scale. Both organizations, then, seem to have much in common and appear to be mutual partners. Is this cooperation really going as well as one would expect? Do they treat each other as equal partners? This article tries to answer these questions and more.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/euun-relations-how-much-of-a-partnership/E6B58A5571D93A32476D737B603FC948

17 / 09 / 2019

Does Corruption End the Dominant Party System? A Comparative Analysis of the Italian and Turkish Cases

Gülçın Balamır Coşkun

Academia Europaea

This article argues that the effects of high-level corruption scandals on the future of a dominant party depend on the existence of a rule of law system based on the separation of powers. The article will study two examples from a comparative perspective to concretise its theoretical claims: the Christian Democracy Party in Italy, which was the dominant party from 1948 to 1992, and the Justice and Development Party in Turkey. The comparison will be based on an institutionalist perspective. The first part tries to provide a theoretical clarification of the concepts of predominant party systems and corruption. The second part discusses whether the Turkish and Italian party systems can be classified as predominant and the characteristics of these systems. The final section seeks to draw out similarities and differences between these two systems and the effects corruption has on them.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/does-corruption-end-the-dominant-party-system-a-comparative-analysis-of-the-italian-and-turkish-cases/9E98949DDA9652925ABD3D886E214383

17 / 09 / 2019

The Relationship between Financial Development and Unemployment in Selected Countries of the European Union

Serhan Çiftçioğlu, Murad A. Bein

Academia Europaea

This article empirically examines the relationship between alternative measures of financial development and the unemployment rate in a selected group of ten EU countries. Using annual data for the sample period of 1991–2012, we first perform different panel regressions (using averaged and non-averaged versions of data) for unemployment rate. These panel regressions are based on a regression equation that includes inflation rate and growth rate of GDP, in addition to the level of financial development, as explanatory variables. Secondly, we apply Granger causality tests to investigate the nature of the causality between financial development and the unemployment rate for each country in our sample. The empirical findings suggest that unemployment rate and financial development are negatively correlated, and there is a statistically significant causal effect of financial development on unemployment in certain countries. However, the results are not robust to the choice of proxy measure for financial development.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/relationship-between-financial-development-and-unemployment-in-selected-countries-of-the-european-union/24BA838A0ECE48B94212FCCDDB22735A

17 / 09 / 2019

Memory, Transnational Justice, and Recession in Contemporary Spain

Lorraine Ryan

Academia Europaea

The 2007 Law of Historical Memory, which aimed to excise the spatial remnants of Francoism from the Spanish landscape, and to recognise Republican victimhood, was blatantly inadequate, and left victims in the same legal position as before. 1 In the immediate aftermath of the law, the Spanish state institutionally divorced itself from the recuperation of Republican memory by closing down the Office for Victims of the War and Dictatorship, 2 and reducing the funding devoted to historical memory from 6.5 to 2.5 million in 2011. This article will examine the subsequent transnationalisation of Republican memory, in the form of its Argentinisation, and economic protest movements’ appropriation of the memory of the Second Republic. Relatedly, it seeks to answer overarching questions concerning the reach and scope of global memory edicts in national memory debates.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/memory-transnational-justice-and-recession-in-contemporary-spain/E6E59BE255EAA7B69D17A74C7BA92C84

17 / 09 / 2019

Multi-level Governance of Nanotechnology in Europe: Policy Variation in Germany, the UK, and the Netherlands

Ian P. McManus, Johannes Eijmberts

Academia Europaea

Within Europe, there has been the emergence of an EU-wide nanotechnology regulatory regime with regional authorities gaining greater decision-making power over a wide range of policy areas. However, despite the development of more comprehensive European nanotechnology policies, considerable variation remains in how member states implement these rules and regulations. In this article, we utilize a multi-level governance approach, to explore this seeming paradox in order to explain cross-national policy variation within a common European regulatory framework. This broader analytical approach allows us to account for the wide range of actors involved in European nanotechnology governance including, national governments, international organizations, research institutes, firms, and advocacy groups. Case study analysis of Germany, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands emphasizes how differences in domestic policy styles explain variation in the implementation of nanotechnology regulations across states. At the same time, the engagement of national governments with European and international regulatory efforts highlights the important role that states play in contributing to the development of a common nanotechnology regime in Europe.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/multilevel-governance-of-nanotechnology-in-europe-policy-variation-in-germany-the-uk-and-the-netherlands/43281F5317DE1983F0F0358F0741F140

17 / 09 / 2019

Smart Internet Search with Random Neural Networks

Will Serrano

Academia Europaea

Web services that are free of charge to users typically offer access to online information based on some form of economic interest of the web service itself. Advertisers who put the information on the web will make a payment to the search services based on the clicks that their advertisements receive. Thus, end users cannot know that the results they obtain from web search engines are exhaustive, or that they actually respond to their needs. To fill the gap between user needs and the information presented to them on the web, Intelligent Search Assistants have been proposed to act at the interface between users and search engines to present data to users in a manner that reflects their actual needs or their observed or stated preferences. This paper presents an Intelligent Internet Search Assistant based on the Random Neural Network that tracks the user’s preferences and makes a selection on the output of one or more search engines using the preferences that it has learned. We also introduce a ‘relevance metric’ to compare the performance of our Intelligent Internet Search Assistant against a few search engines, showing that it provides better performance.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/smart-internet-search-with-random-neural-networks/188045D7749594B49BFA451E1366EEDC

17 / 09 / 2019

Object Extraction and Classification in Video Surveillance Applications

Muhsin Civelek, Adnan Yazici

Academia Europaea

In this paper we review a number of methods used in video surveillance applications in order to detect and classify threats. Moreover, the use of those methods in wireless surveillance networks contributes to decreasing the energy consumption of the devices because it reduces the amount of information transferred through the network. In this paper we focus on the most popular object extraction and classification methods that are used in both wired and wireless surveillance applications. We also develop an application for identification of objects from video data by implementing the selected methods and demonstrate the performance of these methods on pre-recorded videos using the outputs of this application.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/object-extraction-and-classification-in-video-surveillance-applications/F63EF72DD352E472A630FC9483417C32

17 / 09 / 2019

Understanding Life: A Bioinformatics Perspective

Natalia Szostak, Szymon Wasik, Jacek Blazewicz

Academia Europaea

According to some hypotheses, from a statistical perspective the origin of life seems to be a highly improbable event. Although there is no rigid definition of life itself, life as it is, is a fact. One of the most recognized hypotheses for the origins of life is the RNA world hypothesis. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to prove some assumptions of the RNA world hypothesis. However, despite some success in the ‘wet-lab’, we are still far from a complete explanation. Bioinformatics, supported by biomathematics, appears to provide the perfect tools to model and test various scenarios of the origins of life where wet-lab experiments cannot reflect the true complexity of the problem. Bioinformatics simulations of early pre-living systems may give us clues to the mechanisms of evolution. Whether or not this approach succeeds is still an open question. However, it seems likely that linking efforts and knowledge from the various fields of science into a holistic bioinformatics perspective offers the opportunity to come one step closer to a solution to the question of the origin of life, which is one of the greatest mysteries of humankind. This paper illustrates some recent advancements in this area and points out possible directions for further research.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/understanding-life-a-bioinformatics-perspective/7A0FC37981D2DDE7F8B7D58C26F3D88F

17 / 09 / 2019

Brain Computer Interfaces for Silent Speech

Yousef Rezaei Tabar, Ugur Halici

Academia Europaea

Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems provide control of external devices by using only brain activity. In recent years, there has been a great interest in developing BCI systems for different applications. These systems are capable of solving daily life problems for both healthy and disabled people. One of the most important applications of BCI is to provide communication for disabled people that are totally paralysed. In this paper, different parts of a BCI system and different methods used in each part are reviewed. Neuroimaging devices, with an emphasis on EEG (electroencephalography), are presented and brain activities as well as signal processing methods used in EEG-based BCIs are explained in detail. Current methods and paradigms in BCI based speech communication are considered.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/brain-computer-interfaces-for-silent-speech/F6100C30A5680AACD9270D5E2ACEF5A1

17 / 09 / 2019

Creativity under Strong Constraints: the Hidden Influence of Design Models

Armand Hatchuel, Milena Klasing Chen

Academia Europaea

In engineering design, constraints can stimulate creativity but are also often cited as obstacles to innovation. So do constraints hinder or foster creativity? Despite a number of studies, the reason why constraints can have a positive or a negative impact on creativity is still unknown. In this paper, we will propose, theoretically and empirically, that the link between creativity and constraints is not determined by the type of constraints, but by the type of ‘design model’ used. Using C-K theory, a well-documented, general, and formalized theory of design, we first prove that the dual impact of constraints on creativity is predictable. Then we use C-K operators to distinguish two different design models: rule-based design and innovative design. We show that the first model organizes a negative link between constraints and creativity while the second model enables a positive effect. We illustrate these mechanisms through the analysis of several product developments based on both secondary and primary sources.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/creativity-under-strong-constraints-the-hidden-influence-of-design-models/B8491A1EF19847DA5B6C77BF7C09500A

17 / 09 / 2019

Can Europe have a Telecommunications Industry?

Alain Bravo

Academia Europaea

This paper summarises the author’s remarks during a symposium held at Imperial College, London, UK, in honour of Erol Gelenbe. It provides a perspective for the future of the Telecommunications industry in Europe.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/can-europe-have-a-telecommunications-industry/097B6A17E449A29C565250832C62AB06

17 / 09 / 2019

The Founding of the National Academy of Technologies of France

Pierre Castillon

Academia Europaea

This text was written for the symposium honouring Erol Gelenbe and to deliver a message from the French academy of engineering, NATF, the National Academy of Technologies of France, in the presence of six of our Fellows, including Erol as an active member. I will explain what our goals were when we created our engineering academy 15 years ago, and how our concept was and still is very different from that of an academy of sciences.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/founding-of-the-national-academy-of-technologies-of-france/33B64E726F2407E269B357595C5B2A85

17 / 09 / 2019

The Posthuman in the Anthropocene: A Look through the Aesthetic Field

Jacob Wamberg, Mads Rosendahl Thomsen

Academia Europaea

The posthuman summons up a complex of both tangible challenges for humanity and a potential shift to a larger, more comprehensive historical perspective on humankind. In this article we will first examine the posthuman in relation to the macro-historical framework of the Anthropocene. Adopting key notions from complexity theory, we argue that the earlier counter-figures of environmental catastrophe (Anthropocene entropy) and corporeal enhancement (transhuman negentropy) should be juxtaposed and blended. Furthermore, we argue for the relevance of a comprehensive aesthetical perspective in a discussion of posthuman challenges. Whereas popular visual culture and many novels illustrate posthuman dilemmas (e.g. the superhero’s oscillation between superhuman and human) in a respect for humanist naturalist norms, avant-garde art performs a posthuman alienation of the earlier negentropic centres of art, a problematization of the human body and mind, that is structurally equivalent to the environmental modification of negentropic rise taking place in the Anthropocene. In a spatial sprawl from immaterial information to material immersion, the autonomous human body and mind, the double apex of organic negentropy, are thus undermined through a dialectics of entropy and order, from abstraction’s indeterminacy to Surrealism’s fragmentation of the body and its interlacing with inorganic things.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/posthuman-in-the-anthropocene-a-look-through-the-aesthetic-field/6FE87B2673985E5BFE59CD155D85C543

17 / 09 / 2019

Evolution as Physics: The Human & Machine Species

Adrian Bejan

Academia Europaea

Humans and technology are not in symbiosis. They are one species, not two. Humans, enveloped in artefacts of many kinds and ages (from writing, to airplanes), are evolving as one species, the ‘human & machine species’. This evolution is visible and recorded in our lifetime. Here, I illustrate the evolution of the human & machine species by focusing on commercial aircraft, the cooling of electronics, and modern athletics, which is a special laboratory for witnessing the evolution of animal locomotion. I show that these evolutionary forms of flow organization are in accord with, and can be predicted based on the law of physics that governs evolution in nature, bio and non-bio: the constructal law. Evolution, life and the human & machine species are physics.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/evolution-as-physics-the-human-machine-species/ECFAFCF124160B32581AE8CCDB14A593

17 / 09 / 2019

Evaluating the Posthuman Future – Some Philosophical Problems

Søren Holm

Academia Europaea

Imagining a future scenario where human beings have evolved in ways so that they are no longer human but post- or transhuman has been a recurrent trope in science fiction literature since the very inception of the genre. More recently, the possibility of a future including posthumans has received significant philosophical attention due to the emergence of activist ‘transhumanism’. This paper will analyse some of the philosophical problems in evaluating whether a posthuman future is a good future that we ought to pursue. It will first briefly describe the transhumanist conception of the posthuman, and the different routes envisaged from the current human condition to the future posthuman condition. The second part will then present and analyse some fundamental philosophical problems we encounter when we try to assess whether and to what extent the posthuman future is good and/or desirable; and it will be concluded that assessing the ethical desirability of the posthuman future is close to impossible.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/evaluating-the-posthuman-future-some-philosophical-problems/C718E53A0009202078ADF93A67D3E0D7

17 / 09 / 2019

Legal Aspects of Research with Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Jochen Taupitz

Academia Europaea

Research with human embryonic stem cells (HESC) is very much disputed from an ethical point of view as it requires the destruction of the embryo to derive the stem cells. The legal situation in Europe is heterogeneous. This article gives an overview of the current debate on this topic by outlining the international regulations and the national legislation in the European Union. It is shown that the different legal positions are like an in vivo experiment for contrasting solutions. Furthermore, the legal situation in Germany is examined in more detail and with it the effectiveness and the constitutionality of the requirements.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/legal-aspects-of-research-with-human-embryonic-stem-cells/242CFD3D93D7A1EC84A9FCA1B49D3DB6

17 / 09 / 2019

Research, Exploitation and Patenting in the Area of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Europe – A Case of Concern Causing Inconsistency

Joseph Straus

Academia Europaea

Research on human embryonic stem cells, their exploitation and patenting is a highly controversial issue. This contribution provides for some basic understanding of technologies involved. It discusses ethical issues and legal rules dealing with the research and exploitation of stem cells in Europe. Moreover, it presents and analyses in some detail the statutory provisions of the EU in dealing with the patenting of human embryonic stem cells and the interpretation and application of those rules by the Court of Justice of the European Union. Finally, the resulting inconsistencies of the system as applied are critically analysed and a suggestion how to resolve them offered.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/research-exploitation-and-patenting-in-the-area-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-in-europe-a-case-of-concern-causing-inconsistency/21A44FA823026F023EAD9507BE6A7F2A

17 / 09 / 2019

Cancer, Computers and Complexity: Decision Making for the Patient

Markus Harz

Academia Europaea

In health care, a trend may be noted to fundamentally question some of today’s assumptions about the traditional roles of medical disciplines, the doctor–patient relationship, the feasibility of medical studies, and about the role of computers as an aid or replacement of doctors. Diagnostics and therapy decision-making become more complex, and no end is in sight. Amounts of health-related data are being collected individually, and through the health care systems. On the example of breast cancer care, technological advances and societal changes can be observed as they take place concurrently, and patterns and hypotheses emerge that will be the focus of this article. In particular, three key changes are to be considered: (1) the growing appreciation of the uniqueness of diseases and the impact of this notion on the future of evidence-based medicine; (2) the acknowledgment of a ‘big data’ problem in today’s medical practice and science, and the role of computers; and (3) the societal demand for ‘P4 medicine’ (predictive, preventive, participatory, personalized), and its impact on the roles of doctors and patients.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/cancer-computers-and-complexity-decision-making-for-the-patient/1B199101C5D27068AD409F7672E2F8C2

17 / 09 / 2019

Competing Identities and Turkey’s Future

Yale H. Ferguson

Academia Europaea

One frequent observation about the contemporary world is that the pace of change appears to be accelerating. Turkey is a case in point, and the same is true of Turkey’s relationships with the Middle East, the European Union, and the wider world. All have continued to evolve at such an astonishing rate that almost the only constant has been change itself. Early in the millennium Turkey appeared to have managed the difficult transition from a long era of military control to a relatively stable elected government and liberal democratic values. That expectation eroded in subsequent years under the rule of Prime Minister (now President) Recep Tayyip Erdogan and his Islamist Justice and Development Party (AKP), with an unmistakable drift towards a decidedly illiberal democracy – if not outright authoritarianism – and increased violence at home and abroad. At the time of writing (late-July 2016), Turkey has recently experienced a major military coup, a formal state of emergency has been declared, and a sweeping crackdown is occurring that affects virtually every sector of society.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/competing-identities-and-turkeys-future/4DA4E532CA6B2E6975528E62A9548E89

17 / 09 / 2019

Barcelona beyond the Seas. A Catalan Enclave in Colonial Venezuela

Nikita Harwich

Academia Europaea

The town of Barcelona in Venezuela, with a present population of nearly half a million inhabitants, is – by far – the most important New World settlement bearing the name of Catalonia’s capital. It owes its name to its founder, Joan Orpí i del Pou, also known as Juan de Orpín or Urpín (Piera, 1593 – Barcelona, Venezuela, 1645), who managed to distinguish himself as one of the last conquistadors within the territory of present-day Venezuela. This was no easy task since a Catalan was, technically, not allowed to reside or even to travel to lands under the exclusive control of the Crown of Castille and León. However, since its foundation in 1638, Nueva Barcelona del Cerro Santo was soon to become a sort of Catalan enclave in eastern Venezuela, particularly due to the influence of the Catalan Capuchin missionaries who, since the end of the 17th century on, used it as a base for inland penetration. Similarly, Venezuela’s Barcelona was one of the important trading posts for the Compañía de Comercio de Barcelona, following the latter’s foundation in 1755. A sizeable community of Catalan merchants ensured the town’s growth and prosperity at the turn of the 19th century. This community also fuelled a strong resistance against the independence movement from 1810 onwards, as Barcelona was to become a savagely disputed prey between royalist and patriot armies: the episode of the Casa Fuerte massacre in 1817 is still today remembered as a landmark of royalist cruelty, even though the revenge later exerted by the patriot troops in no way fell behind in terms of mercilessness. The Catalans were particularly singled out and, with few exceptions, were all either killed or forced to leave.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/barcelona-beyond-the-seas-a-catalan-enclave-in-colonial-venezuela/50917BA08E56F2D24AB89236F07C562A

17 / 09 / 2019

Barcelona, Catalonia and the Crown of Aragón in the Bourbon Spanish Empire

Horst Pietschmann

Academia Europaea

After an outline of present-day ‘glocalization problems’ of the European Community this article analyses the problem of whether the centralizing policy of the Spanish Bourbon government after the War of Spanish Succession provides historical evidence on the origins of contemporary Catalan nationalism, as often argued, or not. Referring briefly to the medieval and early modern imperial traditions of both the Aragonese kingdoms, especially of Catalonia and its predominant city of Barcelona, and the Castilian kingdoms, the article argues that during the 18th century the Crown made strong efforts to integrate Catalans into the imperial government and trade and spent large quantities of fiscal income in the modernization of Catalonia as a central base of its Mediterranean policy. Therefore, the historical origins of present-day nationalism have to be explained in the context of more recent historical phenomena in the context of the so-called ‘uncompleted Spanish national project’.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/barcelona-catalonia-and-the-crown-of-aragon-in-the-bourbon-spanish-empire/FA09087CD5087FEFD95184020FEB71C7

17 / 09 / 2019

Barcelona, a Medieval Capital

Flocel Sabaté

Academia Europaea

Barcelona became a capital in the Middle Ages. As the Episcopal See and County Capital, it remained a commercial centre in the eighth and ninth centuries, benefited from the occupation of the border to the west of the city between the 10th and 11th centuries, and throughout the 12th century witnessed the strengthening of its elite. Thanks to economic growth, the ruling classes assumed representativeness over the entire city, especially in political and fiscal negotiations with the sovereign, and were recognised as a municipal government in the 13th century. The city’s growth spread within the administration of the surrounding land through several institutional formulas. Owing to the city’s economic and social growth, and the King’s weakness, during the 14th and 15th centuries local government promoted several initiatives to exercise and hold a capital status over the country and the regions united under the same Crown.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/barcelona-a-medieval-capital/20C8CF2C19AA36E930F9A84E6AFA66C4

17 / 09 / 2019

How to Breathe Life into Cultural Heritage 3D Reconstructions

Selma Rizvić

Academia Europaea

Virtual 3D reconstructions of destroyed or disappeared cultural heritage enable viewers to effectively travel back through time and visualize monuments whose fragments they can see in museums or archaeological sites. A powerful way to convey information through three-dimensional geometry is to add interactive digital storytelling to virtual models. In this paper we present our work on interactive virtual cultural heritage applications with storytelling and show how users appreciate this presentation form, considering it as breathing life into 3D geometry. We describe the Tašlihan project, which consists of a documentary, interactive digital story and serious game about this valuable cultural monument from Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, of which only one wall remains as a memento to its existence.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/how-to-breathe-life-into-cultural-heritage-3d-reconstructions/89689074FEBBB7819C41055580D24A2D

17 / 09 / 2019

Anchoring Innovation: A Classical Research Agenda

Ineke Sluiter

Academia Europaea

Several periods in classical (Greco-Roman) antiquity provide an intriguing mix of being ‘in the grip of the past’ and profoundly innovative in all societal domains at the same time. A new research agenda of the Dutch classicists investigates this combination, under the hypothesis that the two are connected. Successful innovations must somehow be ‘anchored’ for the relevant social group(s). This paper explores the new concept of ‘anchoring’, and some of the ways in which ‘the new’ and ‘the old’ are evaluated and used in classical antiquity and our own times. Its examples range from a piece of ancient theatrical equipment to the history of the revolving door, from an ornamental feature of Greek temples to the design of electric cars, and from the Delphic oracle to the role of the American constitution.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/anchoring-innovation-a-classical-research-agenda/EB4A06F32AA42EAE8F732DF658687A42

17 / 09 / 2019

‘Master of Those Who Know’: Aristotle as Role Model for the Twenty-first Century Academician

Edith Hall

Academia Europaea

‘Aristotle with a Bust of Homer’, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA, which Rembrandt painted in 1653 for Antonio Ruffo, a Sicilian aristocratic collector, has elicited myriad interpretations. As well as the standing philosopher and the bust of the ancient Greek poet who composed the epic Iliad and Odyssey, Rembrandt has included other important ingredients. A medallion is suspended from a heavy gold chain, adorned with the head of Alexander the Great, Aristotle’s student and patron. So, is the ruminating philosopher contrasting material and spiritual values? Or is he comparing art with other forms of intellectual activity, such a science and philosophy? Or is he reverting back to that ancient quarrel between poetry and philosophy? Or is the primary interest that Homer is blind, while Aristotle, who is touching him but not looking directly at him, was a natural scientist who favoured an empirical method?

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/master-of-those-who-know-aristotle-as-role-model-for-the-twentyfirst-century-academician/62126F7C5B18E9F9BFA12EAD651A8442

17 / 09 / 2019

University Governance and Creativity

Georg Krücken, Lars Engwall, Erik De Corte, Wilhelm Krull, Ivar Bleiklie, Michael …   see more contributors

Power, Peter Scott, Francisco Michavila, Jorge M. Martínez, Jean-Claude Thoenig, Catherine Paradeise, Jetta Frost, Fabian Hattke, Gerhard Casper, Sandra Ohly, Gili S. Drori, Jan De Groof, Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen

Academia Europaea

Higher education institutions in Europe have undergone remarkable transformations over the last two to three decades. Changes related to higher education governance have also attracted the attention of researchers, as these changes have been broadly discussed and widely studied, quite often in an international comparative and interdisciplinary fashion. New Public Management reforms have challenged the traditional mode of university governance in Europe that was based on the interplay between strong state regulation and academic self-governance. In its place, a stronger sense of institutional accountability has now emerged. These contributions demonstrate that modern university governance may not always facilitate the creativity that is expected to be the hallmark of universities. In contrast, it may hamper creativity through too short-term perspectives. It therefore appears important for the future to find ways to handle the accountability of universities in a way that provides opportunities for them to contribute to a long-term creativity.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/issue/7181A1DDB7D1C17C2AC3FBF88ACDBE4E

17 / 09 / 2019

Crossing Over To The Future: Interdisciplinarity In Research and Higher Education

Žic Fuchs Fuchs, Helen Bridle, Bruce Brown, Lars Engwall, Carl Gombrich, Erin …   see more contributors

Leahey, Jürgen Mittelstrass, Amir Muzur, Verena Winiwarter

Academia Europaea

In view of the increasing need for interdisciplinarity in order to handle present and future problems, the HERCulES Group within the Academia Europaea and the Wenner-Gren Foundations organized a conference entitled Crossing over to the Future: ‘Interdisciplinarity’ in Research and Higher Education, held from 18–20 May 2017 in Stockholm, Sweden. An important outcome of the conference was the concrete recommendations sent to the High Level Group on maximizing the impact of EU Research and Innovation Programmes (popularly known as the Lamy Group), which were considered to be a direct contribution to the ongoing work of the Lamy Group at the time.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review/article/crossing-over-to-the-future-interdisciplinarity-in-research-and-higher-education/00A58E61B69852361ED59D1540748029

17 / 09 / 2019

Science for policy: a European perspective

Louise Edwards, John V. Tucker, Peter W. Halligan, Ole H. Petersen, …   see more contributors

Mike Bowker, Wendy Sadler, Dion Curry, Robert Evans

Academia Europaea

On 4 September 2018, a six-member panel of experts provided a range of insights into the relationship between science advice and policymaking. The new Chief Scientific Adviser for Wales, Peter Halligan, opened the session. Ole Petersen gave an overview of the role played by academies in the European Scientific Advice Mechanism through the project SAPEA. SAPEA’s achievements were illustrated by two case studies: Carbon capture and utilisation and Food from the oceans, presented by Mike Bowker and Wendy Sadler respectively. The final two panellists, Dion Curry and Robert Evans, provided a research perspective on the evolving field of science for policy. The presentations sparked an interesting and lively debate, with the audience expressing their views on a variety of issues. These included the challenges faced by researchers in navigating the policy process, the understanding of science by policymakers, the relationship between science and the media, and diversity within the sector.

http://aecardiffknowledgehub.wales/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Science-for-policy-post-event-report-double-page-format.pdf

17 / 09 / 2019

Researcher-driven science

Elisabeth Monard, Liliane Schoofs, Alexander Sevrin, Joos Vandewalle, Dirk Van Dyck, Sylvia …   see more contributors

Wenmackers

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

The pioneering research carried out by academics is essential for the welfare and well-being of our society, for the training of our future intelligentsia and knowledge workers, as the first crucial link in the innovation chain, for the knowledge expansion necessary for dealing with global societal challenges and for our cultural enhancement. Research is not only a goal in itself; it is also a means of providing graduates with the necessary skills for tackling the future. This research may arise from the curiosity of the academic, from his or her urge to get to the bottom of a particular societal problem, or from a combination of the two. One positive outcome of the competitive funding model is that virtually all academic research in Flanders is high level; it also offers a solid foundation for industrial partnerships and valorisation. In this respect, universities are the growth engines of a modern economy because they develop ideas and knowledge for future societies, and also because they train new generations of students to be the leaders of tomorrow’s knowledge economy. For this to work, there must be a strong link between education and research, beginning in the Bachelor phase. Moreover, the organisation of the university must be flexible enough to coordinate all these tasks. The government plays a crucial role in the funding of this ground-breaking fundamental research. An essential cornerstone for this is the first-flow funding for the basic financing of the universities. According to the Times Higher Education Ranking of the top 1000 universities in the world, the student/staff ratio of Flemish universities is almost twice as high as that of Dutch universities and five times higher than the top universities worldwide. Furthermore, a recent OECD report shows that the funding of our universities only hovers around the European average. On top of that, it seems to have been forgotten that the source from which industrial research and research in the Strategic Research Centres (SOCs) flows is in danger of drying up, something that would be disastrous for the entire research and innovation chain. Based on the Standpunt's conclusions, various recommendations are outlined to the government in 8.2. Both the first-flow funding and the BOF credits of the second-flow funding are divided between the universities according to performance criteria within a closed total budget. This has resulted in unhealthy competition, especially in universities where these parameters have been extended to the individual researcher. The professor, a central figure in education and research, is currently under enormous pressure: not only because of the constant quest for research funds, but more importantly because of the increase in guidelines, reporting and monitoring levels within the university. Furthermore, there is no time left for debating with students in the style of a real “Socratic tutor". An increase in first-flow funding would allow universities to expand the ZAP base, to develop an ATP middle management level of doctorates to support the ZAP in education and research, to provide start-up credits and sabbatical leave, and minimal basic funding for every professor. The universities must increase researcher confidence and boost the amount of “quality time” for education and research by simplifying the rules and the number of monitoring levels. These conclusions are outlined in 8.3 in recommendations to the universities. FWO funding (second-flow funding) is allocated on the basis of competition and scientific excellence. It is vital that this competition is fair and equitable. The Standpunt argues for an increase in and better distribution of the funds from the second-flow funding. The strengths and weaknesses of various financing models, with or without a committee, are discussed in an accompanying SWOT analysis. The ERC (European Research Council) is proposed as a model for the FWO. The Standpunt formulates in 8.4 practical proposals for an equitable distribution of the funds among researchers at all stages of their career, with the aim of creating a careful balance between the principles of “funding top research” and “equal opportunities for equal quality”, regardless of the discipline and the institution.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/researcher-driven-science

16 / 09 / 2019

The central role of end users in the energy transition

Ronnie Belmans, Jeroen Büscher, Cedric de Jonghe, Peter de Pauw, Philippe de …   see more contributors

Raedemaeker, Chris Develder, Stefan Grosjean, Erik Hendrix, Joris Lemmens, Geert Palmers, Matthias Strobbe, Ivo Van Vaerenbergh, Pieter Vingerhoets

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

One of the key challenges of the 21st century is tackling the global climate change by limiting the emission of greenhouse gases. It has serious implications on the energy sector, which is until now to a large extent dependent on fossil fuel based generation plants. In recent years, local renewable energy generation like solar and wind have seen a spectacular increase in the energy system. However, these forms of electric energy generation are intermittent in nature, availability of low-cost renewable energy is highly variable depending on weather conditions. For times with low renewable energy generation, back-up generation capacity or storage can be used to fulfill the energy needs of the consumer. In general, the time at which energy is consumed is becoming increasingly important compared to the total amount of consumed electric energy. Meanwhile, there is a clear trend towards increasing electrification of appliances, such as the electric vehicle and electric heating. One of the big challenges of the energy sector in the 21st century is matching times of low-cost renewable energy generation and consumption. The role of the residential consumer is rapidly changing as well. Rather than passively paying the energy bill, small consumers can now be generators of their own electrical energy. In future, the small consumer must get a financial incentive for shifting consumption towards periods with abundant renewable energy generation. Nowadays this is impossible yet in Belgium, as there is no metered information available about the time of the electricity consumption during the day. When the consumption and generation are measured more in real-time (through the introduction of smart metering systems), the regulation can offer an incentive for shifting residential consumption to times with abundant renewable energy generation. For a single residential consumer in Belgium, only roughly a third of the energy bill is related to the cost of actual energy generation, the other important contributions include grid tariffs and taxes/levies. The grid operator bases its bill on the total energy consumption, while its actual costs are more related to the real-time power flow. Therefore, a ‘variable’ connection capacity charge could be introduced in the future, where a consumer could have a certain minimal contracted capacity, which is not necessarily related to the physical capacity. In this way the distribution charge can provide an incentive to spread the power flow. In addition, in times of emergency the distribution grid operator could bring the consumer back to a minimal contracted capacity to prevent outages. For a group of consumers, regulation still prevents to work together to improve the overall system efficiency. For instance, consumers in an apartment building could invest together in solar panels, a heat pump and/or a cogeneration unit. However, this is impossible in the current regulation, as every consumer has its own meter on which his energy bill is based. All these types of innovations need to be tested in large-scale open living lab pilot sites, where new tariff schemes, new market models and new technologies can be simultaneously tested in a regulation-luke environment.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/central-role-end-users-energy-transition

16 / 09 / 2019

Being a professor in 2016

Yvan Bruynseraede, Herman De Dijn, Dirk Van Dyk, Irina Veretennicoff, Frank Willaert, …   see more contributors

Dominique Willems, Jacques Willems

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

Universities are without any doubt powerful forces in the development of economic welfare, but first and foremost they are places where knowledge is created and communicated at the highest intellectual level. They provide services of various kinds to society, and impart knowledge valued in and for itself. University professors are the key actors in these endeavours. The last three decades have witnessed profound alterations within universities, affecting their management as well as the core aspects of their mission, i.e. teaching, research and service to the community. These changes have had a huge impact on the academic profession in both positive and negative ways. Positively, universities are managed more efficiently, student numbers have grown significantly, more funding, especially for research, has been made available, and international visibility has increased. On the negative side, many studies point to heightened – and, to a certain extent, perverse – pressure and competition, ever expanding bureaucratic burdens, and a growing imbalance between the various core tasks. Others lay bare a fundamental change in the relation of trust between the academic and his/her host institution. This position paper seeks to analyse not only the symptoms, but also the underlying causes of this malaise, and concludes with some recommendations to university managers and policy makers. Starting from a description of the characteristics of the New Public Management policy applied also to universities, the authors warn of unwanted side-effects: the danger that financial means become goals in themselves, the focus on purely quantitative measurement, the lack of attention given to the specificity of different disciplines. All these factors affect the core activities of universities in many diverse ways. Concretely, for professors these changes have led to an ever increasing workload and competitive pressure, the feeling that they are not evaluated on the basis of the most appropriate criteria, and ultimately the fear that the necessary conditions are missing for doing their professional work in the best possible way, allowing for creativity, passion, and time to reflect and do research in depth.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/being-professor-2016

16 / 09 / 2019

The Chemical Route to a CO2-neutral world

Johan Martens, Annemie Bogaerts, Norbert De Kimpe, Pierre Jacobs, Guy Marin, Korneel …   see more contributors

Rabaey, Mark Saeys, Sebastian Verhelst

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

The chemical element carbon (C) is a building block of life. It is essential for energy supply, technology and all things produced and consumed by man. The global society has a “carbon economy”. The majority of useful carbon compounds emanate from car-bon dioxide (CO2), once incorporated into biomass via photosynthesis. On a geological time scale, fossil biomass was converted to coal, oil and natural gas. At the end of their life cycle, the carbon atoms inside man-made goods are put back in the form of CO2 that ends up in the atmosphere. The excessive CO2 emissions by anthropogenic activity is in fact a timing issue. It takes its most extreme form in the use of fossil fuels to generate energy. Fossil carbon compounds whose formation took up millions of years, are converted in milliseconds into CO2, discharged into the atmosphere. The natural CO2 capture mechanisms work too slowly to compensate for rising CO2 emissions. The indispensable transition to CO2-neutral human activity on earth involves tremendous scien-tific and technological challenges. The current generation has the overwhelming responsibility to not only stop the ongoing increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, but also to reduce it to a lower acceptable level in order to restrain climate change caused by greenhouse gases. There are several scenarios that offer a possible solution to reducing CO2 emissions. The Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts offers the voice of the chemical sciences in this debate and tries to identify realistic chemical solutions. Because of its vital role the chemical element carbon will keep its prominent place in the economy. Rather than to eliminate carbon, the objective is to realize a CO2 neutral world within the foreseeable future. In this position paper, a path towards this goal is proposed. Common misconceptions are refuted. The complex problem of rising CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere is reduced to its scientific essence in order to find solutions. CO2 emissions can be divided in those from point sources and diffuse sources, each responsible for about half the emissions. Point sources are the chimneys of large installations such as power plants, refin-eries, blast furnaces, cement kilns and incinerators, of which there exist about 220 in Flanders. The capture of CO2 from point sources and the conversion of this CO2 to fuels, chemicals and materials with fast catalytic processes is becom-ing technically possible. Some emerging technologies are already being demon-strated on an industrial scale. Others are still at laboratory or pilot scale. Their implementation can be realized in a time window ranging from 5 to 20 years, subject to the necessary investment in scientific research and development. The massive amounts of energy needed for these processes of capture and conversion of CO2 must come from low-carbon energy sources, mainly from the sun, but also from tidal energy, geothermal energy or nuclear energy. Synthetic methane gas, that can be formed from CO2 and hydrogen gas, is an attractive renewable energy source for which a distribution system currently exists. Methanol offers advantages as a liquid fuel and is also a building block for the chemical industry, as via catalysis numerous chemicals and plastics can be produced. CO2 emissions from diffuse sources on the other hand are a difficult problem, and CO2 emissions from transport by road, water and air are so in particular. Technological breakthroughs for CO2 capture are missing for these sources. It is impossible to ban carbon from the entire energy supply of mankind with the cur-rent technological knowledge, but a transition to a mixed carbon / hydrogen / electron economy can reduce CO2 emissions by the transport sector significantly. The life cycle of the hydrogen atoms in chemical compounds ends up with the formation of water, which is not a threat.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/chemical-route-co2-neutral-world

16 / 09 / 2019

The STEM teacher

Irina Veretennicoff, Joos Vandewalle, Bert Seghers, Conny Aerts, Yvan Burynseraede, Philippe Cara, …   see more contributors

Wim Dehaene, Bernadette Hendrickx, Charles Hirsch, Rik Hostyn, Christiane Malcorps, Niceas Schamp, Alexander Sevrin, Katrien Strubbe, Dirk Van Dyk, Paul Van Houtte, Veronique Van Spreybroeck, Jacques Willems

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

Quality education in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics has become a major concern for governments and policy-makers all over the world. Indeed, neither technology-driven economies nor democratic societies can develop without a critical mass of STEM skilled knowledge workers and a population of citizens with sufficient STEM literacy. Unfortunately, the scientific literacy of the population is often inadequate in most of the developed countries. Moreover there is a dramatic lack of interest among the youth to opt for STEM studies and STEM careers. A working group of fellows of the Academy and other Flemish experts in the field focused on the “STEM teacher” for the present position paper. It is felt that many of the findings and recommendations here extend beyond the Flemish region. Three didactical recommendations for quality STEM education are formulated: (1) STEM teachers should show their pupils the relevance of their curriculum to bridge the gap with youth culture, by contextualizing, by responding to the values, interests and environment of pupils and by answering why the matters to be learned are so important. (2) STEM education should seek better integration of the four STEM components, with respect for their individuality. (3) STEM teachers should involve pupils in the creative learning processes typical to STEM, such as arguing, investigating, designing and problem solving. These recommendations require a major revision of STEM education, solidly founded on educational research. (4) This process must be prepared by educational actors. (5) To upgrade the status of teachers in society, the teaching profession should have career incentives and the professionalism of the teacher should be recognized. (6) Schools should strive to have a STEM department, bringing together teachers in charge of the education in the various sciences, technology and mathematics, to collaborate on project work, harmonize curriculum and have consultation with external STEM professionals. (7) The Flemish education system provides too little time for professional support for teachers. STEM teachers should be encouraged and supported to adopt a lifelong learning attitude. There is a need for further training and retraining, good mentoring and (international) networking. To achieve these recommendations, (8) it is suggested that a STEM education centre be created, modeled after international examples of successful STEM centres. It should bring together, develop and disseminate expertise, learning material and equipment on STEM education. (9) Moreover, an initial Master program in STEM education should be installed. It should be open to all academic bachelors in a STEM field. It should lead to teaching qualification for the subject in which the degree of the student is situated (academic degree in a STEM field). This degree would require a total of five years of tertiary education and should be organized beside the existing teacher programs.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/stem-teacher

16 / 09 / 2019

Financial education

Marnix Van Damme

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

International and national interest in financial education as a tool in the battle against illiteracy is increasing. Because the term ‘financial education’ has only emerged during the past decade, and is therefore relatively new, the theoretical framework will be outlined first. Attention will be given to some fundamental characteristics of financial education and its benefits and increasing social relevance. Since the success of financial education is necessary in order to obtain a clear idea of the level of financial literacy, this essay will discuss further how literacy is measured. Since 1 April 2011 the Belgian financial regulator, the FSMA (‘Financial Services and Markets Authority’), has been doing important work in terms of encouraging and coordinating financial education. The theoretical framework and its practical implementation by the FSMA form the basis of ten recommendations about points for attention and views on the further development of financial education. In addition to an economic-protective objective, there should also be a socioeducational objective. More specific attention must be given to teaching financial skills in the training and development of the critical abilities of young people in financial matters. The integration of financial education into existing educational structures is a relatively short-term challenge. Measures against financial illiteracy require a particularly favourable social climate to which the government can also contribute by for example concentrating some of its fiscal interests more on increasing efforts in financial education. Financial education clearly needs to be a permanent concern in the financial sector. Product transparency and public nformation are by no means the only issues. There will need to be a uniform research framework which is open to comparison and also a targeted financial education. This is primarily for practical purposes, namely to make individuals and households more resilient in taking concrete decisions which have financial implications. This means nevertheless that financial education in the future will need, more frequently, to be the subject of scientific and, preferably, interdisciplinary research.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/financial-education

16 / 09 / 2019

Historical consciousness in Europe

Jo Tollebeek

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

Historical consciousness can change in its intensity: there can be more or less historical consciousness. But its nature can also change: the way in which the relationship between present and past is interpreted can vary. And this relationship with the past has indeed been a varied one over the last two centuries. The modern historical consciousness, which began after the fracture that came with the French Revolution and after the romantic hantises, encapsulated a longing for an inner connection with the past. Those who had gone before were regarded as having bestowed a bequest on the modern generations. The new social shocks at the end of the nineteenth century led to the emergence of a more radical, anti-modern historical consciousness which bore testimony to the desire to re-traditionalise society. By contrast, the context of the social criticism that pervaded the 1960s and 70s gave rise to a neo-modern historical consciousness. It was linked to a desire to denounce and often debunk a past that was seen as wrong, where a continuity between past and present was no longer regarded as a good thing. In reaction to the (perceived) vacuum this created, the decades that followed brought something of a historical reveille, rooted in a late-modern historical consciousness. It lay at the basis of the creation of a multifaceted world of substitutes, as an attempt to mask the loss. The gulf between past and present proved too wide, however. In the post-modern historical consciousness, the past remained a foreign country. At the same time, the ‘traditional’ historiography had to make way for memory as an instrument for giving shape to the past. In such a development, the historian can no longer be the guardian of the status quo. By contrast, he must accept the changeability of the world, remain aloof and exercise his readers in a sensitivity to the specificity of different historical periods and styles. The task of the historian of today is to strengthen historical literacy.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/historical-consciousness-europe

16 / 09 / 2019

Corporate social responsibility

Guido Beazar, Matthieu Boone, Karel Claes, Sabine Denis, Denis Dentchev, Marc Despieglaere, …   see more contributors

Jan Flamend, Ludo Gelders, Aimé Heene, Christ'l Joris, Francois Maes, Christiane Malcoprs, Leo Michiels, Inge Overmeer, Herman Van de Velde, Paul Verstraeten, Peter Wollaert

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

Corporate social responsibility has become an unavoidable and necessary part of each business venture. Economic value creation is impossible without due respect for ecological, social and ethical aspects. Together with government , educational institutions, NGOs and consumers, small and large enterprises will all have to aim at sustainable development. They will have to, not only for commercial reasons, but also out of mere self-interest. The markets and the general public will correct unsustainable behaviour. Numerous businesses, both multinational companies and SMEs already  made big efforts in the field of CSR and a lot of research has been done regarding boundary conditions, key success factors and co-operation models with and between stakeholders. There are many examples of meaningful, creative and inspiring solutions, both at large and small scale. Thorough acceptation and implementation by all stakeholders, though, is not yet sufficiently acquired, and the planet will not really benefit from CSR as long as not all parties involved will truly assume their responsibility.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/corporate-social-responsibility

16 / 09 / 2019

Opportunities for future research and innovation on food and nutrition security and agriculture

Volker TER MEULEN, Joachim VON BRAUN, Tim BENTON, Eduardo BIANCHI, Christiane DIEHL, …   see more contributors

Mohamed HASSAN, Sheryl HENDRIKS, Elizabeth HODSON DE JARAMILLO, Molly HURLEY-DEPRET, Lyunhae KIM, Yoo HANG KIM, Krishan LAL, Jeremy McNEILL, Paul MOUGHAN, Jackie OLANG-KADO, Jutta SCHNITZER-UNGEFUG, Aifric O´SULLIVAN, Katherine VAMMEN

InterAcademy Partnership

For the three-year IAP project 'food and nutrition security and agriculture' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), four parallel regional academy network working groups were constituted: in Africa (the Network of African Science Academies, NASAC), Asia (the Association of Academies and Societies of Sciences in Asia, AASSA), the Americas (the Inter-American Network of Academies of Science, IANAS) and Europe (the European Academies’ Science Advisory Council, EASAC). The academies’ experts on food and nutrition security and agriculture from the four global regions decided on 10 guiding priority questions, the responses to which from each region formed the basis of the academies’ analysis. The four regional working groups developed their advice which were then subject to academy-nominated independent peer review and endorsed by each regional academy network. The feedback to the four regional reports was used as a resource to prepare this fifth, global report under the auspices of an expert editorial group. The global report was independently peer reviewed and endorsed by IAP.

http://www.interacademies.org/48898/Opportunities-for-future-research-and-innovation-on-food-and-nutrition-security-and-agriculture-The-InterAcademy-Partnerships-global-perspective

16 / 09 / 2019

Decarbonisation of Transport: options and challenges

Konstantinos BOULOUCHOS, STURM, Jan KRETZSCHMAR, Neven DUIC, Juhani LAURIKKO, Alex BRADSHAW, Thomas …   see more contributors

HAMACHER, Marc Oliver BETTZÜGE, George GIANNOPOULOS, Han LA POUTRÉ, Kornelius BLOK, Øystein ULLEBERG, Harry FRANK, Filip JOHNSSON, Gil GEORGES, Kirsten OSWALD, Thomas Justus SCHMIDT, Paul SCHERRER, Peter BRUCE, William GILLETT

European Academies Science Advisory Council

This EASAC report reviews options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from European transport. It argues for stronger policies to bridge the gap between the GHG emission reductions that will be delivered by current policies and the levels needed to limit global warming to less than 2°C or even 1.5°C (Paris Agreement). The report focusses on road transport because, in the EU, this contributes 72% of transport GHG emissions. EASAC recommends a combination of transitional measures for the next 10-15 years and sustainable measures for the long term, based on a three level policy framework: avoid and contain demand for transport services; shift passengers and freight to transport modes with lower emissions (trains, buses and ships); and improve performance through vehicle design, more efficient powertrains and replacing fossil fuels with sustainable energy carriers including low-carbon electricity, hydrogen and synthetic fuels. Opportunities for the EU to strengthen its industrial competitiveness and create high quality jobs are also discussed.

https://easac.eu/fileadmin/PDF_s/reports_statements/Decarbonisation_of_Tansport/EASAC_Decarbonisation_of_Transport_FINAL_March_2019.pdf

12 / 09 / 2019

Threats to Coastal and Marine Ecosystems, and Conservation of the Ocean Environment – with Special Attention to Climate Change and Marine Plastic Waste

German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina

A healthy coastal and marine environment is essential for the ongoing sustainable development of human society. The ocean is a large absorber of atmospheric heat and carbon dioxide, and provides a vital buffer against anthropogenic climate change. The ocean contributes to human well-being in many ways, such as providing protein from fisheries, maintaining various natural cycles and is also a source of recreation and spiritual comfort. However, coastal and marine ecosystems are also facing serious threats. There are major environmental concerns on a global scale, which include acidification, deoxygenation, warming and its associated sea level rise as well as frequent extreme weather conditions. High nutrient inputs and inflow of pollutants such as heavy metals and organic toxic materials deteriorate coastal environments. Accumulation of plastic waste in the ocean originating from both land and ocean is an emerging problem. Damaging fishing practices, including Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU), affect coastal and marine ecosystems. The role of science in minimizing these impacts upon nature and society should not be understated.

https://www.leopoldina.org/en/publications/detailview/publication/bedrohungen-fuer-kuesten-und-meeresoekosysteme-und-erhaltung-der-meeresumwelt-2019-1/

12 / 09 / 2019

The mobility of tomorrow: are we ready for a paradigm shift?

Denis DE BRUYNE, Koen KERCKAERT, Dirk LAUWERS, Julie MABILDE, Cathy MACHARIS, Alex …   see more contributors

VAN BREEDAM, Willy VAN OVERSCHÉE, Bart VANNIEUWENHUYSE, Yvan VERBAKEL,

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

The issue of mobility is a complex multidimensional problem and requires an urgent approach, also related to the expected increase in both personal travel needs and an increase in freight transport. The current approach is mostly observed and experienced from a focus on fast sub-solutions, whereby additional infrastructure works are carried out, sometimes at the expense of the necessary attention for the existing resources and their maintenance. The basic issue must solve the apparent paradox between an efficient travel need of the individual user and the fragmentation of the means used to meet this need. This should take into account a background of an extreme existing density of the road network, the fragmented urbanization in our regions and a public transport offer that, at best, partially addresses these challenges. Various approaches are reviewed with attention to people and the environment, new technological and systemic tendencies and their impact on the social context and organization. Three key recommendations are unambiguously signed: Open Governance The transition to a new mobility requires a broad cooperation between and an active role of science, policy, industry and society. Fundamentally, creating a "platform" to facilitate an overarching vision of mobility with all involved participants. At the same time, this function can also explore new developments (Mobility as a Service, self-driving vehicles, Internet of Things) through test projects on the interplay of road pricing with the concept of shared mobility: how should the different modes of transport be charged in order to stimulate the right means of transport at the right level? Open Data Digitization offers opportunities, but at the same time potential dangers are surfacing: who has which data, which power is in their hands? Many of the data on mobility are available in a fragmented way with different parties, and not always for the participants of a model in which each party has its role to play and in which the government(s) determine the rules of the game in function of the desired social added value. Clear contracts, where the data must be shared with the government, and the possibility to adjust the services in the future are important. The accessibility of all available mobility data of all and / or new players for the aforementioned platform must be guaranteed at all times. A focal point strategy for shared mobility A much better link with spatial planning and an area-oriented approach are needed with the definition of a specific mobility policy and accessibility through the definition of nodes. Via these nodes, as many activities as possible can be clustered. From these clusters, transports can be organized in a maximally bundled way. This way the goods mobility can be channeled and made more sustainable. In addition to an active cluster policy, an active corridor policy can also be implemented. The mobility of the future presents us with the task of designing the slower changing space and infrastructure in such a way that they steer the rapidly changing technological developments in the desired direction. The proper functioning and localization of those nodes is consequently unduly necessary to realize the necessary transitions in the use of the various modes of transport. people to make the switch to public transport. The role of the government is to monitor solidarity in order to keep those basic needs and the emancipatory effect of access to work, education, ... open to everyone. The above strategy can of course only be realized if there is close cooperation between all stakeholders in the mobility debate. Via an integrated vision of mobility and spatial planning an objective description of the situation can be drawn up, leading to an envisaged densification and hierarchical structure of the total network at various levels (region, region, municipality, ...).

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/mobility-tomorrow-are-we-ready-paradigm-shift

12 / 09 / 2019

The battle for the truth: Fake news and disinformation in the digital media world

Jaak BILLIET, Michaël OPGENHAFFEN, Bart PATTYN, Peter VAN AELST

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

Ever since Donald Trump’s 2016 election campaign the term “fake news” has become an integral part of daily media reports (Allcott & Gentzkow, 2017). Presumably, this is one of the reasons why the term has become associated with the president of the US. Specific events exemplify the phenomenon, as when spokesman Sean Spicer asserted – against all evidence – that the crowd at Donald Trump’s inauguration in January 2017 was the biggest ever. After TV footage and head counts showed incontestably that his contention was false, Trump’s spokesman continued to deny that “fact”. The then ommunications advisor, Kellyanne Conway, came to Spicer’s defence, claiming that his observations were based on “alternative facts”. This sounds like a way of legitimising fake news: fake news need not give way to factual news, because it relies on a different (alternative) view of the ‘multifarious’ facts and looks at them from another perspective (Kakutani, 2018: 74). In addition to the abovementioned US election campaign, the unexpected results of the Brexit referendum have also fed the discussion on the long-term consequences for democracy of deliberate and targeted campaigns that use demographic, and even psychological, profiles (‘micro targeting’) of voters in order to spread misleading information (Wardle & Derakhshan, 2017: 4, 26-28). What the United Nations revealed about the mass expulsion of the Rohingya from Myanmar, and about the role of hate campaigns among millions of Facebook users in this process, strengthens the realisation that terms such as ‘power’, ‘mass violence’ and ‘hate campaigns’ are all part of the wider debate on fake news and disinformation. What is involved is a struggle over feelings, thoughts, mindsets and knowledge. Donald Trump’s election campaign and the ‘micro-targeting’ activities of Cambridge Analytica during the Brexit campaign reveal the darker side of the digital world. But there is another side that we would do well not to forget when looking for ways to legislate the digital world. The facilities of the digital world allow countless users to stay in touch with friends and family across the entire world. Finding useful information, when planning all kinds of activities, has never been easier. In an interview, the famous philosopher-sociologist Jürgen Habermas compared the rise of the online society with the invention of the printing press. The internet has already created millions of useful niches where reliable information and wellfounded opinions can be exchanged. Academics can now attract a wider public for their discoveries, publications and critical discussions. This is the reason why in this position paper we would like to make nuanced and very specific recommendations that counter (online) disinformation, without discounting the positive accomplishments of the digital society and freedom of expression.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/de-strijd-om-de-waarheid

12 / 09 / 2019

Multiculturalism – How can society deal with it

Tariq MODOOD, Frank BOVENKERK

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

Can we create new national stories that would enable all citizens, regardless of their background, to feel they belong to the national community? What implications does that have for schools, specifically for religious education? How can crime and terrorism be confronted? These were among the questions raised by the Thinkers’ Programme of the Academy. Recent decades have been characterised by a growing polarisation in Europe on questions of immigration and integration, and by public anxiety about infringements on the established way of life. When defining their stances, majorities tend to rely more on their own fears than on familiarity with the experiences and values of the minorities in their midst. Two ‘Thinkers in residence’, invited by the KVAB, initiated a reflection on the subject of multiculturalism as a mode of political accommodation of the minorities formed by immigration to Belgium (and Flanders in particular) and its implications for majority identities. The general theme of ‘Multiple identities in conflict and/or in harmony’, addressed by the Thinkers, was approached on two levels: (political) theory and the problems of practice. Each of the Thinkers presented their conclusions to various experts and stakeholders at the final symposium of June 23, 2017. Their recommendations were formulated in a final position paper, contained in this report.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/multiculturalism-how-can-society-deal-it

12 / 09 / 2019

GMOs in 2018. Time for a thorough revision

Gheysen GODELIEVE, René CUSTERS, Dominique VAN DER STRAETEN, Dirk INZE

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

Finding a sustainable way of feeding the ever-growing global population is one of humanity’s greatest challenges in the 21st century. GMO technology – GMO meaning ‘genetically modified organism’ – is often named in relation to this, as part of the solution but as an obstacle to the solution as well. The cause of this contradiction is because the debate on GMOs often focuses on aspects not related to GMOs themselves: the debate is about multinationals, monoculture, the use of pesticides or the negative consequences of GMO legislation in Europe. The GMO technology is often reduced to specific examples and the current GMO practices. The European GMO legislation was created late ‘80s and was revised at the turn of the century. Plants that are identified as GMOs are considered a distinct category. They are subjected to a more thorough monitoring than other plants. This was warranted thirty years ago, due to lack of knowledge and experience but today it leads to a two-track policy without scientific backing. The past decennia it has become clear that GMO technology does not create specific risks for health or environment in comparison to common food production. For all living organisms it is possible for the DNA to break and recombine, similar to the recombination technique in GMOs. Recombinations and rearrangements can occur spontaneously in the DNA of living organisms. Both in wild plants as well as in crops, examples have been discovered of the incorporation of DNA from Agrobacterium, the bacterium that is frequently used to create genetically modified plants. This emphasizes the occurrence of natural genetic engineering, and hence indicates that there is too much contrast between the GMO legislation and the legislation applicable to other plants. Furthermore, several disadvantages attributed to GMOs are a consequence of the stricter regulation and are not due to the GMO technology itself. As a consequence of the current legislation, GMOs also remain in the hands of multinational companies and the genetic varieties on the agricultural market are often limited. A lot of scientific progress has been made since the introduction of GMO legislation: new techniques such as genome editing or precision breeding have been added to the portfolio of plant breeders. These techniques put a strain on current legislation. Should crops resulting from these new techniques be subjected to the stricter legislation? Are there any reasons to strongly regulate the products of these techniques? In many cases the use of these modern techniques results in plants that could also have originated from classical breeding. Since plants obtained by either classical breeding or precision breeding are indistinguishable, it is difficult to find scientific arguments for applying strict regulation to crops obtained by precision breeding. The focal point is sustainability and how we best serve this purpose. If we want a greater diversity in seed companies and robust varieties to make agriculture more sustainable, we urgently need to incorporate the acquired scientific knowledge on GMO technology into European legislation. This legislation needs to secure access to new breeding techniques for smaller companies. Policymakers should feel backed by scientific research proving that European citizens are not questioning the technology but rather specific implementations of this technology.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/gmos-2018

12 / 09 / 2019

Food and Nutrition Security: Improving Soils and Increasing Productivity

German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina

Soils, water and energy are essential resources for ensuring food security in the world. Human pressures on soil resources are reaching critical limits. Main threats are erosion, loss of organic carbon, nutrient imbalances, salinization and sodification, loss of biodiversity, contamination, acidification, compaction and urbanization. In this context, the S20 affinity group makes the following specific recommendations for the sustainable management of soils: 1. Promoting good soil governance. Priorities should be given to limiting urban sprawl and devising adaptive strategies of soil management to climate change. Soil monitoring based on benchmark sites and/or permanent observatories is necessary to assess soil restoration programs and detect tipping points in soil degradation. Integration of soil, water and crop data into scientifically based models allows for building scenarios and supporting decisions. Science is needed to inform policy actions by governments and civil society, particularly legislation concerning soil conservation and protection. It is necessary to promote education (schools and media) as a means to increase public awareness of the essential role of soils. Programs aimed at educating farmers in sustainable soil management are strongly needed. 2. Promoting soil knowledge in specific areas. Comprehensive 3D high-resolution (30-m) digital mapping is necessary to generate knowledge of soil properties and its relevance to research and management. Integrating 3D digital soil properties with weather monitoring and crop suitability will improve water and fertilizer efficiency, and define best practices adapted to local and regional conditions. These soil and crop suitability maps should be complemented by methods of proximate soil sensing employing real-time big data to hasten digital agriculture. The research agenda on soils must include the following: a) Deciphering the mechanistic functions of the soil microbiome and its biodiversity on soil function and on plant and human health; b) Studying the efficiency and the effective recycling of fertilizers, a critical global constraint to achieving yields; c) Studying the short- and long-term sequestration of carbon, the preservation of soil organic matter and the rehabilitation of degraded soils; d) Developing strategies to decrease the toxicological aspects of agrochemicals including combatting pests by ecological procedures, using less-toxic and rapidly-decomposing pesticides, and applying highly targeted treatments. 3. Increasing international scientific cooperation programs in the sustainable management of soil. Doctoral and post-doctoral programs that enhance professionals and scientists of less developed countries should be specifically established and promoted.

https://www.leopoldina.org/publikationen/detailansicht/publication/food-and-nutrition-security-improving-soils-and-increasing-productivity-2018/

12 / 09 / 2019

Flanders wise with water

Jean BERLAMONT, Jeroen BUYSSE, Frederik DE LAENDER, Didier D´HONT, Erik MATHIJS, Patrick …   see more contributors

MEIRE, Ingmar NOPENS, Ilse SMETS, Wim VAN GILS, Joos VANDEWALLE, Frank VERSCHRAEGEN, Willy VERSTRAETE

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

Flanders has a quite extensive knowledge in the domain of water systems, water technology and water management. Yet, the region is at present certainly not properly prepared for challenges associated with the various aspects of water and climate change. The current generation should boldly uncover the potential severe impacts of climate change on water in Flanders and delineate a rigorous action plan to be implemented during the coming decades. This essay should be seen as an add-on document to that prepared by the international independent Thinkers, who, at the request of the Academy, have visited Flanders and have discussed the issues of a water wise Flemish governance with a variety of directly concerned academic, industrial and political stakeholders. Indeed, subsequent to the visit of the Thinkers, a generic platform of debate has been set up in which the entire water sector and the related governmental organizations have attempted to draft lines of action for Flanders towards a strategic water governance for Flanders. Climate change means that water supply will become more irregular and unreliable. With respect to the topic of Too much/Too little water, it has become apparent that a communication plan about 'Multilayer Water Safety' should be more effectively advocated so that the general population becomes more willing to actively cooperate to the paradigm of 'holding, storage and discharge of water'. Particularly the pivotal role of the Flemish 'Coordination commission on Integral Water Governance CIW' has hereby been emphasized. In relation to the potential shortages of water, the concept of water recycling has been advanced as being of crucial importance. Central in this respect and in the framework of the 'cyclic economy' in general is the fact that upon the recovery of materials from 'used commodities' (such as for instance fecal contaminated wastewater), the recovery products (i.e., reclaimed water, nutrients, ...) must be judged specifically on their intrinsic quality and not on their origin. It is quite probable that the rise of the sea level at our coastal line will continue in the coming decades. On a short term basis, it is essential to further develop the existing coastal defense plan without any reservation. Yet, this is not enough. It is advised to develop and assess the technology of dune-beach-enlargement and also to examine the possibility of creating artificial islands in front of the coastal line. It is evident that the neighboring countries should be informed and preferably be collaborating with the latter processes of infrastructure optimization. Agriculture is the most important user of open space and has a major impact on water quantity and quality. In addition, agriculture can be instrumental in delivering several important ecosystem services. It is argued how to improve the current ways of subsidizing the agro-sector by re-orienting the currently available support measures towards more generic societal needs. A new vision to decrease Flanders' need to massively import nutrients and a clever spatial implementation of wetlands, which are combined with agricultural grasslands, are some measures which are proposed to make agriculture better embedded in the transition towards more and better water management. The crucial role of water for the Flemish industry has been highlighted by the Thinkers. To safeguard water reserves for all sectors combined (industry, agriculture, households and nature ), a high level plan for the coming decades, encompassing and binding a series of governments, is needed. In this respect, the existing plans, being the Vision 2050, the Water Government Note and the River Basin Management plans 2016-2019 are a firm basis to act upon. Yet more commitment is needed, particularly from the Flemish citizen. Each of us should urgently become more aware of the acuteness of the problems associated with water in Flanders and our personal responsibility in these matters, rather than persisting in the attitude that one can rely on insurance companies or state funding. The citizen must become convinced that a clever water management of the Flemish region assures not only economic advantages but also brings forward a series of social advantages particularly in the context of an increased value of urban property and nature-associated well-being and leisure.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/flanders-wise-water

12 / 09 / 2019

Energy efficient (re)construction

Hugo HENS, Arnold JANSSENS, Dirk SAELENS, Jan KRETZSCHMAR, Stan ULENS

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

European directives require residences to become ever more energy efficient. To realize this, several measures are implemented, which should bring the primary energy consumption for heating and – sometimes – for cooling close to zero. However, the savings calculated in theory are not always realized in practice. The following two effects explain the divergence. First in line figure dweller habits, which are typically more thrifty than assumed in official regulation but turn less beneficial when, through optimized building physics and changing human behaviour, residential buildings become ever more energy efficient. Second in line comes excess voltage in the low-voltage distribution grid, which was not designed to transport simultaneous peaks in electricity produced on sunny summer days by a growing number of PV installations. As a consequence, part of these PV installations must sometimes be temporarily disconnected from the grid, which reduces the share of renewable primary energy and, obviously, the savings potential on conventional primary energy use. With these adjusted insights in mind, the KVAB states following positions: On average, dweller habits lead to a lower annual end energy use for heating than the calculation tool imposed by the Energy Performance of Residences (EPW) in Flanders predicts. However, due to a decrease in supplementary energy savings because of building physics and, sometimes, changes in habits in ever more energy efficient residences, the total extra savings through more stringent legal requirements will be less than expected. Moreover, a massive move to PV as renewable primary energy source would further impair the savings. Indeed, in sunny summer periods PV-installations would have to be disconnected from too weak low-voltage distribution grids in order to avoid excess voltage input. As a consequence, the energy yield from PV would be lower than expected. For residential buildings, annual primary energy used for lighting and appliances is not covered by the energy performance legislation. However, its share in the total residential primary consumption is already truly important. Its relative share will further increase since primary energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water is due to go down because of mandatory savings measures. That drop may incline dwellers to care less about use of lighting and appliances. A scenario according to which an ever more strict energy legislation will increase the costs of building and retrofitting residences without however reducing proportionally the total primary energy consumption of buildings can therefore not be excluded. For residents the extra investments compared to the annual benefits of a lower end energy use are still of overriding importance. The following micro-economic reality must anyhow be guiding: the total present value over the usage period of a residence by the same dwellers must remain close to the lowest possible. Legislation that goes beyond this is not optimal. Stepping to net zero (nZEB) or plus energy (n+EB) residential buildings doesn’t look opportune in Flanders, especially not when this would require a widespread installation of PV. Excess voltage problems during summer in most of the low-voltage distribution grids would be unavoidable, as a consequence of which part of the PV installations would have to be disconnected, thus leading to a loss of their share of primary energy supply. In reality there will be no nZEBs, let alone n+EBs and it will prove impossible to amortize PV investments in a reasonable period of time. A possible solution consists of equipping each PV-installation with adapted battery storage and a smart converter. However, this would make PV even more expensive. Alternatively the distribution companies could upgrade the existing grids: yet, this would require huge capital expenditures, the amortization of which would likely be charged to PV owners, thus also increasing private PV investment costs. In order to tune electricity use and its production by PV, consumer demand will have to be actuated. In other words, families should change their habits and practices. If smartly rolled out, this could be meaningful for a number of appliances, such as washing machines, tumble dryers, sometimes dish washers, freezers and perhaps refrigerators. But for lighting and other appliances actuating is impossible. Experience also learns that changing habits and practices is a very difficult objective to realize. Taking into account the above considerations, the working group thinks it is quite doubtful if nZEB and n+EB residential buildings are meaningful concepts in Flanders. Because of the climate, residential buildings will always consume more primary energy for heating, domestic hot water, lighting and appliances then roof-coupled PV can produce in winter, while in summer the reverse will often be true. On sunny summer days, so much PV electricity will be injected in the grid that part of the installations will have to be shut off, while the price per kWh could drop to zero or even turn negative. To conclude: energy reality is more complex than a seemingly logical approach suggests. Recommendations for the Flemish government Most urgent is a new and thorough evaluation of the proposed package of stepwise more demanding requirements for residential buildings as planned with an eye on 2021. Is it truly meaningful to move to a primary energy consumption level E30 and to give municipalities the authority to dictate even more stringent performances, up to a level of primary energy consumption E0? PV looks nice but, in case one sticks to a massive implementation of it, the use of smart converters and battery storage will be mandatory. In the short term, the costs for both will surely drop, although such an obligation will anyhow demand additional investments. On top of the smart converters and battery storage to be installed by PV owners, the low voltage distribution grids and the transformers will also have to be upgraded where necessary. This will require important investments by the distribution companies.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/energy-efficient-reconstruction

12 / 09 / 2019

Automation and Robotisation: Towards a more inclusive society

Hendrik VAN BRUSSEL, Joris DE SCHUTTER, Herman BRUYNINCKX, Hugo DE MAN, Ludo …   see more contributors

GELDERS, Hubert VAN BELLE, Bram VANDERBORGHT, Joos VANDEWALLE, Robert GOBIN

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

The fear that automation and robotisation will drastically influence the structure of our society, by which unemployment will/may significantly increase, is widespread in the many available studies, predictions and popular press articles. The shrinkage of the total available work volume and a shift in the distribution between high-,medium- and low-skill jobs, are indicated as the main consequences. The unrest is amplified by the ongoing trend towards globalisation of the society and its economy, characterised by offshoring of companies, social dumping, and the like. Globalisation aspects are not taken into account here. To put the described trends into perspective, the Class of Technical Sciences (KTW) of the Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts (KVA B) has established a working party. This working party has produced a document, number 46 in the series KVAB Standpunten, where the vision of KVA B on the problems mentioned above has been articulated. The aim of this exercise is to inform the general public as objectively as possible, by giving insight in the debate that is raging worldwide, thereby trying to debunk some myths, and to formulate a series of recommendations to the different stakeholders of the ‘triple helix’ (research, education, industry) to face the stated problems, and to respond adequately to the opportunities that emerge from the new technologies. It has been concluded that: The panic messages in the popular media about ‘the invasion of the robots’ and its impact on employment and on the potential and limitations of the emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence, are often exaggerated and deserve some reservation. Because robots are by far not yet approaching human intelligence, many tasks and jobs will remain reserved for people for a long time to go. Kurzweil’s Singularity point is still far away and Moravec’s paradox stating that “tasks that are trivial for men are difficult for robots and vice versa” will remain valid for a long time. Indeed, manipulation tasks are (much) more difficult to automate than pure information processing tasks. Innovation can be a powerful engine of employment, in different ways: (i) by causing productivity growth through automation, (ii) by creating new markets with new innovative products, (iii) via new business models. The interaction mechanisms between innovation, productivity and employment are complex and the effects are difficult to quantify and sometimes contradictory. Innovation, under each of its forms, should be stimulated by all parties of the triple helix (government, research and education, industry), not only to increase productivity, but primarily to stimulate development of new products and processes, in order to increase employment and to enhance or establish the high-tech industrial commons that are the cradle of succesful innovation. The distribution of employment over the different job contents undergoes drastic changes. This results in job polarisation by which the demand for medium level jobs decreases, while high-level and low-level jobs face an increasing demand. Job polarisation is a consequence of the fact that manual and cognitive routine jobs are easy to automate, contrary to complex manual jobs which are much more difficult to robotise. Moreover, tasks that require general intelligence (processing of new information, solving unstructured problems) are still very difficult, if not impossible, to automate. Presently, the introduction of robots in industry poses no real threat to employment yet. Its influence is still marginal. Robots still have too many shortcomings to repel humans in a substantial way from the production process. We have to prepare ourselves however, as research is progressing, for a more massive inroad of robots into the production process, by designing our factories for the unexpected. Next to being a potential threat for employment, robots also provide unseen opportunities in our striving towards a more inclusive society. Medical and service robots do not only contribute to human welfare but they have the potential to create a new industrial commons in Flanders, able to stimulate innovation and employment in a new high-tech discipline. Creativity and systems thinking should be the foundations of our future education system at all levels. The STEM2 -approach, systems theory, mechatronics, design, … are important subject areas to be taught to substantiate this vision.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/automation-and-robotisation

12 / 09 / 2019

An evolution in health care

Erik SCHOKKAERT

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

Every analysis of the Belgian health care system has to start by correcting some common but misleading stereotypes. Belgium does not have the best health care system in the world, at least if we focus on quality and accessibility. The subjective satisfaction of the population is indeed exceptionally high, but this is caused in the first place by the large degree of freedom of choice and by the provider competition on service quality. Whereas most Belgian policy makers express a deep aversion towards introducing market forces in the system, in reality market forces are already dominating on provider markets with considerable freedom of choice both at the demand and at the supply side and even a degree of free price setting. Removing waste will not be costless – and even more so as it will require reducing the freedom that all players enjoy so much. The growth of health care expenditures is mainly caused by technological and scientific progress and curbing this growth is likely to have a large welfare cost and to threaten the solidarity within the system. This analysis inspires a series of general policy proposals: More and better quality information on providers and hospitals has to be made available to the citizens. Co-payments can stimulate responsible patient behavior but only if they are differentiated for different treatments (“value based”) and refer to items that can be controlled by the patients themselves. Ambulatory and hospital care must be better coordinated. Stimulating collaboration between providers requires decreasing the relative weight of the fee-for-service component in provider payments. Alternatives have to be developed for the present system of price setting of pharmaceuticals. Decisions about the reimbursement of specific treatments and pharmaceuticals have to be communicated to the population in a transparent way. The debate about the government budget must differentiate between different forms of government revenues and expenditures. An open debate is needed about the optimal trade-off between health and private consumption in a rich society. Willingness-to-pay for health insurance implies willingness-to-pay for solidarity. Translating these general ideas into policy requires a careful analysis of the pros and cons of specific policy measures. The devil is in the details and specific design features may be crucial for the ultimate success (or failure) of a policy reform. These issues are not only technical, however: they all involve difficult trade-offs between different social values. Protecting the solidarity in our society is one of the most important social challenges in a period where citizens seem to become more and more individualistic. If we cannot keep solidarity in the domain of suffering, pain and death, the future of solidarity in other social domains looks very bleak indeed.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/evolution-health-care

12 / 09 / 2019

Artificial Intelligence: Towards a fourth Industrial Revolution

Luc STEELS, Bettina BERENDT, Aleksandra PIZURICA, Dirk VAN DYCK, Joos VANDEWALLE

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a scientific and engineering discipline that tries to find methods and techniques to build systems that are able to emulate functions normally performed by the human brain, such as sensory perception and pattern recognition, planning and control of complex systems, production and understanding of language, learning of regularities in order to make predictions, organization of knowledge, etc. AI does not try to simulate human intelligence literally but to build systems that are capable of solving problems that require intelligence. 'Intelligent' robots use AI, but this is only one of the application fields of AI and not the most important one. AI started in the nineteen-fifties and went through cycles with high expectations, promises, a lot of enthusiasm with peaks of investment, followed by periods of criticism and doubt. At the moment we see worldwide a very strong wave of enthusiasm about the application of AI in many domains of human activity; and coupled with this a very strong increase of research activities, particularly in US and Chinese companies. The current interest and application of AI is without precedent. Although a lot of the enthusiasm is based more on science fiction than on reality, there is a growing consensus that AI is of the utmost importance for the economy of the future and can contribute to a better functioning of society. AI provides a powerful and novel way to link producers and consumers and thus contribute to the reorganization of the economy. It can lead to new products, provide added value to existing products and drastically improve production processes. AI can also help to streamline administrative procedures and increase their quality. And it contributes to giving everybody access to the massive amounts of knowledge that are now digitally available. Finally, it can help to stimulate creativity and distribute cultural items such as music or literature. We believe that AI can exert a very strong positive force for our contemporary society, if the necessary measures are taken for research and for spreading technical knowledge of AI broadly. But we are also concerned about premature applications or wrong usage. It is therefore necessary to become conscious of the limits of AI and take action so that it is used in a safe and reliable way in the interest of all. The Class of Natural Sciences (KNW) of the Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Sciences and Arts (KVAB) has started a working group to study the impact of AI in Flanders. This working group has organized a meeting bringing together some of the key actors in the field and has produced a document in the series 'Standpunten', in which the vision of the KVAB about this domain is expressed. The main purpose of this document is to inform the public as objectively as possible and to propose a series of conclusions and recommendations to concerned parties in order to deal with AI and ensure that our community can properly benefit from the huge opportunities, as well as get an insight in the risks and what to do about them.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/artificial-intelligence

12 / 09 / 2019

Privacy in an age of the internet, social networks and Big Data

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

The current use of the Internet, social media and big data severely affects the privacy of ordinary users. This positioning paper is primarily aimed at the private user young and old who did not have special education or training regarding ICT but still uses these services intensively and who, whether or not, rightly worries about the hazards to which his or her privacy is exposed. This requires not only a better and deeper understanding of the technological possibilities and limitations, but also the commercial interests, and their relation to the constraints and threats of our personal privacy when using the many often valuable services. The specific aspects of privacy as patients, or the privacy regulations for companies and institutions that track and process files with data from individuals, employees, students, or customers, is not dealt with but is referred to other reports. This positioning paper has been conceived by a working group of members of KVAB and external experts covering the different aspects of this interdisciplinary subject, that have met regularly over a period of one year. Since the ICT world is often overwhelmed with "jargon" words, the scope of which does not penetrate or because the newspapers sometimes describe very frightening low-backed situations, we first discuss the main concepts both at the level of the machine learning, data extraction and the big data, as well as the privacy issues that arise, and finally the ways in which a better privacy can be acquired. In order to make this more concrete for the modal reader, we discuss important privacy hazards in a number of concrete situations, such as the digital life of a family, the big data police in passenger profiles, the internet of things, the context of smart cities, distributed information versus central collection, autonomous vehicles, and location information. Although this digital revolution is not over yet, the modal user can already modify his behavior. There is extensive scientific literature on this subject, but there are also many widely accessible texts available recently, including websites, to which the interested reader is referred to in the bibliography. The ten recommendations mainly focus on various target groups and situations. Recommendation 1: Responsibilities. Privacy in the big data is an issue for citizens, engineers, consumers, companies, institutions, media and governments. This calls for the provision of sufficient resources to the supervisors, especially with regard to companies that derive their earnings model from big data analysis. Recommendation 2: Alert citizens. Citizens, whose data are being processed, should try to maximize their rights under the GDPR. The verification of personal data requires that the individual gains insight into the use and misuse of the data, as a precondition for genuine freedom of choice. Precisely because it is extremely difficult for individuals, we recommend that those concerned use the opportunity to exercise their claims through mandating to consumer or privacy organizations (Article 80 GDPR). Recommendation 3: Providence, Profile Transparency, and Goal Binding. Although the profiles themselves are not related to a particular person and thus are not personal data themselves, the application applies to a person who fits within the "validation" of the profile, under the fundamental right to data protection (GDPR). The right to profile transparency implies the obligation to inform stakeholders and explain how they are profiled and this beyond a correlation or statistical relationship. Recommendation 4: Power Unbalance. If the person responsible for an ICT service relies on the consent for the use of personal data, then it must be easy to withdraw, with a limitation of permission in time. They will not apply a manifest power imbalance between the data subject and the controller or processor, e.g. because the responsible person provides the dominant (or only) service in the market. The controller must demonstrate that there is no power imbalance or that this imbalance cannot affect the consent of the person concerned. Recommendation 5: The builders of ICT and IoT devices must make use of technologies that maintain privacy and allow transparency for the end user. They need to work on ‘privacy by design', taking privacy from the start of the design as an important requirement, and not being "stuck" afterwards. The service providers must allow users to assemble services of different origins. The designers of algorithms must write their algorithms to ensure users' privacy. Application designers need to allow transparency, work on efficient and effective technologies that allow users to authorize their data usage. Additionally, one must make certification of applications so users are sure that the applications are safe. Typically privacy must be default. Recommendation 6: Role of government and companies. It is the duty of government and companies to check for each big data solution whether the risks for the protection of personal data and the risks to society as a whole outweigh the benefits. In doing so, one should always check if it is not possible to achieve the same goal by using less data or aggregating data. Recommendation 7: Preventing unwanted data bias. The responsible designers and service providers must always check whether inaccurate or unfair 'data bias', 'algorithm bias' or 'output bias' is hidden in the data sets with which algorithms are being trained, either in mathematical models themselves or in the output (indirect discrimination). Recommendation 8: Limits to the use of big data by the government. The use of public sector big data, both in the field of detection of tax and social security fraud and in the context of national security, crime and law enforcement, should always be subject to a review by the relevant supervisors. In addition, the legitimacy and the related proportionality must be paramount, which also requires a marginal efficiency test. It is essential that legislation be provided that determines how and when the result of data mining and statistical analyzes (correlations) by the government may or may not be used as legal evidence to make decisions in individual cases (e.g. In dealing with fraud, law enforcement ...). Recommendation 9: Establishing a digital clearing house. It is advisable to set up a Digital Clearing House (DCH) that monitors the quality of the various digital market regulators. Recommendation 10: Task of education. Specific to young people, education has a task of bringing awareness, attitudes, skills and behavior from the actual life spheres such as home, school and friends (eg youth associations). It is important to point out to young people the "pitfalls" of their own behavior, as expressed, for example, in the privacy paradox.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/privacy-age-internet-social-networks-and-big-data

11 / 09 / 2019

Data Science and healthcare

Yolande BERBERS, Willem DEBEUCKELAERE, Paul DE HERT, Yvo DESMEDT, Frank DE SMET, …   see more contributors

Mireille HILDEBRANDT, Karolien POELS, Jo PIERSON, Bart PRENEEL, Joos VAMDEWALLE

Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts

The Big Data ecosystem consists of five components: (1) data creation, (2) data collection and management, (3) analysis and information extraction, (4) hypothesis and experiment and (5) decision making and action. We propose to use data science in which systematic use of data through applied analytical disciplines (statistical, contextual, quantitative, predictive and cognitive models) leads to data-based decisions. For each segment of this ecosystem, there is a need for a customized professional education and job classification: the data engineer, data scientist and responsible for data strategy. The role of data science in health care is triple (triple AIM): an increase in patient experience, quality and experience, better public health and a cost reduction. The EU Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) directive recalls two objectives: better protection of personal data for individuals, and more opportunities for business in the digital single market through simplification of regulation. The implementation of this for the individual Belgian patient - with access to his health data through a consolidated platform - must be realized by May 25, 2018. Availability, accuracy, reliability and safety are essential conditions for added value of data science in healthcare. Data must be available anonymously for research purposes, in such a way that the identity of the patient is protected. The latter will be increasingly under pressure due to technological developments. Currently there is no legislation available to make available adequately protected patient data to parties different from traditional healthcare providers who may benefit (for research, product development ...) without the patient having to give his / her consent for a similar Purpose of use. This should take into account European regulations that assign an important role to the data controller.

https://www.kvab.be/en/standpunten/data-science-and-healthcare

11 / 09 / 2019

Health Inequalities. An Interdisciplinary Exploration of Socioeconomic Position, Health and Causality

The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Science

Despite decades of research into health inequalities there is still no consensus on some of the basic issues. For example, different disciplines hold different views on the nature of the causal relationship between low socioeconomic status and health, and on the main mechanisms linking low socioeconomic status to ill health and premature death. This discussion paper aims to kick-start the much-needed interdisciplinary discussion about these issues. It has been drafted by the Scientific Committee on Health Inequalities, established by the Federation of European Academies of Medicine (FEAM) and All European Academies (ALLEA) and chaired by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW).

https://www.knaw.nl/en/news/publications/health-inequalities

11 / 09 / 2019

Brexit, Science and Innovation: Preparations for ‘No-Deal’ inquiry

The Royal Society

The Royal Society submitted evidence to the Commons Science and Technology Committee to highlight the dangers of no-deal Brexit for research and innovation, in addition to Professor Peter Bruce FRS, the Society's Vice-President and Physical Secretary, giving oral evidence on 30 January 2019, The submission highlights two immediate actions that the government can take now to reduce the impact of a no-deal Brexit on science: - Confirm that additional money will be made available to the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy in the event of no-deal Brexit, alongside the existing guarantees, to cover the costs of establishing alternative funding for UK researchers no longer able to access European Research Council, Marie-Sklodowska Curie Actions and the SME Instrument Programmes - Take all opportunities to promote the UK’s commitment that it will always welcome global research and innovation talent

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2019/consultation-response-science-innovation-brexit-no-deal-preparation/

11 / 09 / 2019

Consultation response: Lords EU Home Affairs subcommittee inquiry into Brexit – EU students exchanges and funding for university

The Royal Society

This submission focuses on access to the EU framework programmes – Horizon 2020 and its planned successor Horizon Europe – and the impact of a no deal scenario for research and innovation.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2018/consultation-response-lords-eu-home-affairs-subcommittee-inquiry-into-brexit/

11 / 09 / 2019

Keeping global warming to 1.5°C

The Royal Society

Challenges and opportunities for the UK Holding warming to 1.5°C would considerably reduce risks from climate impacts to people in the UK and around the world. In response to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C, the Royal Society has produced a summary of the IPCC’s findings and what these mean for the UK. The summary identifies what UK policymakers can do now, both in terms of UK policy and globally, to enable the UK to play its role in limiting warming to as close as possible to 1.5°C.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2018/keeping-global-warming-to-1-5-c/

11 / 09 / 2019

The microbiome: human medicine and agriculture in a microbial world

The Royal Society

On 5 October 2018, leading scientists from across academia and industry attended the conference The Microbiome: human medicine and agriculture in a microbial world at the Royal Society to discuss microbiomes and their emerging influences on medicine and agriculture. The conference covered a wide range of topics including the application of microbiome science to agricultural yield, crop resilience in the face of climate change, and greenhouse gas emissions from farm animals. The influence of bacteria on human health, in particular immune-therapy, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), informatics, and the gut-brain axis, were also explored. The technical, regulatory and ethical challenges associated with commercial applications of this field were highlighted. This conference is part of a series organised by the Royal Society entitled Breakthrough science and technologies: Transforming our future, which addresses the major scientific and technical challenges of the next decade.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2018/transforming-our-future-microbiome-report/

11 / 09 / 2019

Evidence synthesis for policy

The Academy of Medical Science

Evidence synthesis is a joint programme of work by the Royal Society and the Academy of Medical Sciences. ‘Evidence synthesis’ refers to the process of bringing together information from a range of sources and disciplines to inform debates and decisions on specific issues. Decision-making and public debate are best served if policymakers have access to the best current evidence on an issue. An accurate, concise and unbiased synthesis of the evidence is therefore one of the most valuable contributions the research community can offer policymakers. Despite examples of good practice, there remain challenges with both the supply of, and demand for, synthesised evidence. Research funding and evaluation systems often place higher value on original research, and a lack of communication and understanding between policymakers and researchers can create an unintended disconnect between the questions policymakers are asking and the research that has the potential to provide insight.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/projects/evidence-synthesis/

11 / 09 / 2019

Greenhouse gas removal

Adisa AZAPAGIC, David BEERLING, Chris CHEESEMAN, Gideon HENDERSON, Cameron HEPBURN, Jo HOUSE, …   see more contributors

Corinne QUÉRÉ, Nils MARKUSSON, Nilay SHAH, John SHEPHERD, Pete SMITH

The Royal Society; Royal Academy of Engineering

The 2015 Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change aimed to pursue efforts to keep temperatures at no more than 1.5°C above pre-industrial times. Meeting these ambitions will require more than just extensive cuts to emissions. It will also require the active removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere and their storage, a process called greenhouse gas removal. The Royal Society, in partnership with the Royal Academy of Engineering, has produced a report and associated summary to outline methods of greenhouse gas removal and how other influences like legislation, the environment, economics or social factors will affect their deployment. The report also considers how they might plausibly be used in the UK and globally to meet climate goals. Methods such as growing forests, enhancing mineral weathering, and direct capture of CO2 from the air have been considered for the role they could play in counteracting hard-to-cut emissions like agriculture and air travel, and in preventing some of the more dangerous impacts of climate change.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/projects/greenhouse-gas-removal/

11 / 09 / 2019

AI and work: a Royal Society and British Academy evidence synthesis on implications for individuals, communities, and societies

Nick CARFTS, Zoubin GHAHRAMANI, Dame Angela McLEAN, Alan WILSON

The Royal Society; British Academy

Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies are developing rapidly, with many potential benefits for economies, societies, communities and individuals. Across sectors, AI technologies offer the promise of boosting productivity and creating new products and services. This potential brings with it questions about the impact of AI technologies on work and working life, and renews public and policy debates about automation and the future of work: how might AI affect jobs and employment? Who could be most affected by these changes? And what factors can influence how the benefits of AI are shared across society? The Royal Society and British Academy have produced an evidence synthesis (PDF) on the impact of AI on work to support a well-informed discussion about the impact of AI on work and to inform policy debates about potential steps to help prepare for this future. Key points in the synthesis: - While much of the debate on AI and work has tended to oscillate between fears of ‘the end of work’ and reassurances that little will change, evidence suggests neither of these extremes is likely. - There is consensus in academic literature that AI will have a considerable disruptive effect on work, with some jobs being lost, others being created and others changing. -Many studies stress that entire jobs are less likely to be automated than tasks within those jobs. Studies that make projections about the impact of AI on work suggest that 10-30% of jobs in the UK are highly automatable, with potential impacts varying significantly by sector, and with high degrees of uncertainty about the rates of change. Many new jobs will also be created, as AI technologies contribute to new types of jobs and as productivity increases help stimulate demand for goods and services. Studies of the history of technological change demonstrate that, in the longer term, technologies contribute to increases in population-level productivity, employment, and economic wealth. However, such studies also show that these population-level benefits take time to emerge, and there can be significant periods in the interim where parts of the population experience significant disbenefits. Evidence indicates that technology-enabled changes to work tend to affect lower-paid and lower-qualified workers more than others. This suggests there are likely to be significant transitional effects, which cause disruption for some people or places, and therefore a potential widening of inequality, at least in the short term. There are a number of plausible future paths along which AI technologies may develop, and using the best available evidence can help ensure that the benefits of this technology-enabled change are shared across society. The synthesis states “While technology is often the catalyst for revisiting concerns about automation and work, and may play a leading role in framing public and policy debates, it is not a unique or overwhelming force driving societal changes. Other factors also contribute to change, including political, economic, and cultural elements.” Education has a role both in driving AI adoption and in combating inequality. The synthesis suggests that: “In the face of significant uncertainty about the nature of work over the next few years and decades, the case for the UK to adopt a broader post-16 curriculum is strong. Educating young people in the sciences, maths, arts, and humanities could equip them with a wider range of skills and the ability to think, interpret, and understand across several disciplines and provide a stronger basis for lifelong learning.” This synthesis draws from a review of research evidence (PDF) carried out by Frontier Economics. It was also informed by a high-level workshop hosted by the Royal Society and British Academy, attended by researchers and policymakers, in March 2018, and a joint event between the Royal Society and American Academy of Arts and Sciences in February 2018.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/projects/ai-and-work/

11 / 09 / 2019

Royal Society President writes to the Prime Minister regarding Brexit White Paper

Venki RAMAKRISHNAN

The Royal Society

President of the Royal Society, Venki Ramakrishnan, has written to the Prime Minister regarding the recently published White Paper on ‘The United Kingdom’s exit from and new partnership with the European Union’. The letter welcomes the Government's desire to deliver an ‘unparalleled partnership’ on science and innovation, and calls for the upcoming Immigration White Paper to set out plans for a system which creates the lowest possible barriers to scientists seeking to move across borders. It also highlights the opportunity for collaborative science, unrivaled in scale and impact, which is enabled by EU Framework Programmes and the importance of regulatory alignment in key areas such as clinical trials.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2018/royal-society-president-writes-to-prime-minister-regarding-brexit-white-paper/

09 / 09 / 2019

Consultation response: Home Office approach to charging for services

The Royal Society

The Royal Society has responded to the Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration's call for evidence in to the Home Office approach to charging for services. Choosing where to live and work is a personal decision as well as a professional choice and factors such as cost and perceptions play an important role. The response highlights new analysis that an academic entering the UK with a family on a 3 year Tier 2 visa would have to pay upfront costs, equivalent to 11% of their annual salary, in Home Office and other compulsory charges. The Society recommends the implementation of an immigration system for people with skills relevant to research and innovation that is fair, transparent and efficient. As part of this, the costs of any necessary visas should be commensurate with typical academic salaries and with the length of stay being requested – from a day visit to long term appointments.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2018/consultation-response-home-office-approach-to-charging-for-services/

09 / 09 / 2019

Statement on the principles that should shape the UK’s future relationship with the EU in the area of research and innovation

The Royal Society

This statement outlines arrangements that the UK should seek as it leaves the EU to: enable scientists based in the UK to continue to be part of the shared European research endeavour and have the best possible access to international funds and the collaborations they support; create the lowest possible barriers to practising scientists seeking to move across borders; provide clarity and certainty, including through regulation and governance, consistently signalling that the UK remains a great place to practice great science.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2018/uk-future-relationship-with-eu-in-research-and-innovation/

09 / 09 / 2019

Dealing with carbon dioxide at scale

The Royal Society; National Academy of Sciences

In October 2017, the Royal Society hosted the US-UK Sackler Forum at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, in partnership with the National Academy of Sciences. This Forum looked in depth at two previously underexplored areas relating to the need to limit carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere. The first of these was the potential to use carbon dioxide as a commodity in industry and manufacturing, which explored to what extent carbon dioxide might be of some value as a resource rather than just a costly and harmful waste. The second was to examine the role of agriculture and forestry in the sequestration of carbon dioxide and whether it is possible to better harness the way plants, crops, trees and soils assimilate carbon dioxide. The report produced reflects the discussion during the Forum and contains a ‘vision’ for using carbon dioxide as well as a framework for carbon capture and use (CCU) technology assessment.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2018/dealing-with-carbon-dioxide-at-scale/

09 / 09 / 2019

Submission to the House of Lords Communications Committee inquiry: The Internet: To Regulate or Not to Regulate?

The Royal Society

The Royal Society has responded to the House of Lords Communications Committee’s inquiry 'The internet: to regulate or not to regulate'. The Royal Society’s response strongly resists a one-size fits all approach to governance of data and its uses, and calls for a renewed governance framework for data use to ensure trustworthiness and trust in the management and use of data as a whole that: protects individual and collective rights and interests; ensures that trade-offs affected by data management and data use are made transparently, accountably and inclusively; seeks out good practices and learn from success and failure; enhances existing democratic governance. The response also outlines the need for a stewardship body which would be expected to conduct inclusive dialogue and expert investigation into novel questions and issues, such as those related to the internet, and to enable new ways to anticipate the future consequences of today’s decisions. It warns against the regulation of machine learning algorithms specifically and advocates a more tailored sector specific approach to regulation. The response explains a series of challenges and tensions which must be considered as the capability and prevalence of data driven technologies increases, including: concepts of data governance which are under strain; balancing the benefits of tailored services and consumer convenience with risks to autonomy; encouraging innovation while maintaining public confidence and addressing societal needs.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2018/consultation-response-house-of-lords-internet-regulation/

09 / 09 / 2019

Options for producing low-carbon hydrogen at scale

The Royal Society

Low-carbon hydrogen has the potential to play a significant role in tackling climate change and poor air quality. This policy briefing considers how hydrogen could be produced at a useful scale to power vehicles, heat homes and supply industrial processes. Four groups of hydrogen production technologies are examined: Thermochemical Routes to Hydrogen - These methods typically use heat and fossil fuels. Steam methane reforming is the dominant commercial technology, and currently produces hydrogen on a large scale but is not currently low carbon. Carbon capture is therefore essential with this process. Innovative technology developments may also help and research is underway. Alternative thermal methods of creating hydrogen indicate biomass gasification has potential. Other techniques at a low technology readiness level include separation of hydrogen from hydrocarbons using microwaves. Electrolytic Routes to Hydrogen - Electrolytic hydrogen production, also known as electrolysis, splits water into hydrogen and oxygen using electricity in an electrolysis cell. Electrolysis produces pure hydrogen which is ideal for low temperature fuel cells for example in electric vehicles. Commercial electrolysers are on the market and have been in use for many years. Further technology developments will enable new generation electrolysers to be commercially competitive when used at scale with fluctuating renewable energy sources. Biological Routes to Hydrogen-Biological routes usually involve the conversion of biomass to hydrogen and other valuable end products using microbial processes. Methods such as anaerobic digestion are feasible now at a laboratory and small pilot scale. This technology may prove to have additional or greater impact and value as route for the production of high value chemicals within a biorefinery concept Solar to Fuels Routes to Hydrogen - A number of experimental techniques have been reported, the most developed of which is ‘solar to fuels’ - a suite of technologies that typically split water into hydrogen and oxygen using solar energy. These methods have close parallels with the process of photosynthesis and are often referred to as ‘artificial photosynthesis’ processes. The research is promising, though views are divided on its ultimate utility. Competition for space will always limit the scale up of solar to fuels. The briefing concludes that steam methane reforming and electrolysis are the most likely technologies to be deployed to produce low-carbon hydrogen at volume in the near to mid-term, providing that the challenges of high levels of carbon capture (for steam methane reforming) and cost reduction and renewable energy sources (for electrolysis) can be overcome.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/projects/low-carbon-energy-programme/hydrogen-production/

09 / 09 / 2019

Climate updates: progress since the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the IPCC

Eric WOLFF, Nigel ARNELL, Pierre FRIEDLINGSTEIN, Jonathan GREGORY, Joanna HAIGH, Andy HAINES, …   see more contributors

Ed HAWKINS, Gabriele HEGERL, Brian HOSKINS, Georgina MACE, Iain Colin PRENTICE, Keith SHINE, Peter SMITH, Rowan SUTTON, Carol TURLEY

The Royal Society

Written by world-leading scientists, Climate updates describes how our understanding of the science of climate change, and its impacts, have progressed since the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). From considerations of how high sea level could rise, to how climate change might affect extreme weather, and what impact climate change will have on food production, human health and species extinction, this report addresses a number of topics that have been a focus of recent attention or where there is significant new evidence. Climate updates is by no means a comprehensive review, but provides answers, drafted by experts, to some of the questions that are frequently asked of climate scientists by policymakers and the public. Climate updates consists of two documents. The main document aims to give a comprehensible answer for each question and is backed by supplementary information for those who would like to learn more about the evidence base and literature sources behind the answers.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2017/climate-updates/

09 / 09 / 2019

After the reboot: computing education in UK schools

The Royal Society

This Royal Society report, After the Reboot – Computing Education in UK Schools, explores the challenges and issues facing the subject in primary and secondary schools since the subject was introduced in English schools in 2014. Why computing education? Computing is a subject that all young people should learn in order for them to have a well-informed understanding of the increasingly digital world that surrounds them. Employers project that the number of careers depending on computing skills will grow. Many pupils currently starting out in school today could end up in jobs that do not currently exist. Computing for all Young people should have the opportunity to study computing and it is vitally important that all pupils have equal access to computing, so that they are equipped with the necessary skills for the future. Many schools are making significant progress, as our case studies show. Our research identified an upward but fragile trend in the uptake of computing qualifications, and the qualifications on offer need to be reviewed. Addressing the gender imbalance we and others have identified is essential and will require innovative approaches. Supporting our teachers We need confident, trained and supported teachers if all students are to have the opportunity to study computing. Our research highlighted that moving to curricula with a stronger computer science focus from curricula dominated by information communication technology to is a difficult transition to make. To truly transform computing education, teachers need unhindered access to a structured programme of professional development. Improving computing education through research We need to understand how to teach computing effectively, in order to have the best possible impact on students’ learning and lifelong outcomes. Our evidence gathering showed that pedagogies for computing in schools remain less developed than those for other subjects, as computing education research in the past has focused on higher education. Significant investment is needed in a new research strategy for computing education. Our report, After the Reboot, identifies the next steps needed to support the growth of this new school subject, so that young people are equipped with the skills to be effective in an increasingly digital world. Governments, industry and academia must continue to support computing education in schools, and address these priorities, to ensure that the subject grows and flourishes.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/projects/computing-education/

09 / 09 / 2019

Research and Innovation Futures after Brexit: Scenarios

Research and innovation are a priority for the UK in the Brexit negotiations and the Society is working towards the best possible outcome for UK and European science. To support our work to explore a breadth of potential outcomes, the Society commissioned the School of International Futures to undertake a project to explore possible futures for UK research and innovation in 2027, in the context of Brexit. The four scenarios published here were developed following a workshop with stakeholders from across the research and innovation community are published here. These scenarios are not predictions for the future. They are published here simply as one tool that others might use to stimulate their thinking broadly about the future of UK research and innovation.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2017/research-and-innovation-futures-after-brexit-scenarios/

09 / 09 / 2019

Submission to the House of Commons BEIS Select Committee’s Inquiry into the impact of Brexit on UK business

The Royal Society

The Royal Society has submitted evidence to the Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy Committee's inquiry into the impact of Brexit on UK business. This submission notes that research and innovation are important to the health of all the sectors in scope for this inquiry and summarises relevant evidence and analysis of the UK's relationship with the EU and its impact on the health of UK research and innovation.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2017/royal-society-submission-to-beis-committee-inquiry-into-impact-of-brexit-on-uk-business/

09 / 09 / 2019

Submission to the Commons Science and Technology Committee inquiry into the Science Budget and Industrial Strategy

The Royal Society

The Society has submitted evidence to the Commons Science and Technology Committee inquiry into the science budget and industrial strategy. This draws on our previous response to the government's industrial strategy green paper and our work on investing in UK Research and Development.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2017/consultation-response-science-budget-and-industrial-strategy/

09 / 09 / 2019

Science for Defra

The Royal Society

This report summarises the Science for Defra conference held at the Royal Society on 29 and 30 March 2017. This two-day conference brought together nearly three-hundred academics, government scientists and policymakers for an open and collaborative discussion about how science and technology can best inform environmental, food and rural policy. Defra and the Royal Society showcased the best in both academic and government science, allowing identification of evidence gaps and development of core research principles. The conference covered a range of Defra’s areas of interest, including food and farming, animal health, environmental quality, and the provision of services from the natural environment. The programme included presentations showcasing the application of evidence across Defra’s areas of interest, and panel discussions about the potential for scientific advance to identify and tackle policy challenges. There were also ‘futures’ workshop sessions considering priorities and trade-offs over the next 25 years. These sessions pushed participants to explore ideas beyond their usual specialisms and resulted in a rich dialogue between academic and policy communities. Building on Defra’s science-driven approach, this conference was an opportunity to develop excellence in the application of evidence to policymaking, and also identified lessons for other government departments.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2017/science-for-defra/

09 / 09 / 2019

Response to the Government consultation on Primary Assessment in England

The Royal Society

The Royal Society has responded to a Department for Education consultation to welcome proposals to provide greater stability and set direction for the long-term system of primary assessment.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2017/consultation-response-primary-assessment-in-england/

09 / 09 / 2019

Realizing our Digital Future and Shaping its Impact on Knowledge, Industry, and the Workforce

G7 Science Academies

Digital technologies are transforming the early 21st century, leading to the creation of entirely new industries based upon machine learning and artificial intelligence and lowering barriers to participation in and access to data, education, and communication tools for citizens around the world. It is believed that international cooperation will be essential in key areas of security, accessibility, and regulation to secure a digital future that is inclusive, democratically governed and ethically minded in which open data and reliable information can circulate. With these objectives, the Academies propose the following principles of action: Inclusion and access with the goal of equal opportunity to participate in and gain from the digital transformation, to channel gains equitably and eliminate digital divides; Information literacy relying on a comprehensive educational plan for all age groups with the objective of providing skills and tools allowing citizens to critically interpret, verify and validate the quality of information circulating in the digital infrastructure; Quality of tools and standards through robust mechanisms for production, validation, access and dissemination of open data, information and machine learning systems, to strengthen reliability and security, preventing tampering, manipulation and privatizing use of data and ensuring that machine learning algorithms are interpretable by non-specialists; Democratic governance in the form of regulatory frameworks to set up an oversight of internet service providers, social media and other entities and prevent private monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the digital economy and to ensure open and neutral internet, protection of digital data and respect for norms of individual privacy; Employment and training policies to encourage new economic activities, foster emerging technological sectors and ensure that the benefits of new technologies also be distributed to workers and that schemes be available for their training and reemployment; Ethics and human values should guide the development of digital technologies, artificial intelligence and big data analytics and intervene in all stages of digital innovations to preserve values of freedom, democracy, justice and trust.

https://www.leopoldina.org/publikationen/detailansicht/publication/realizing-our-digital-future-and-shaping-its-impact-on-knowledge-industry-and-the-workforce-2018/

09 / 09 / 2019

The Global Arctic: The Sustainability of Communities in the Context of Changing Ocean Systems

G7 Science Academies

The Arctic is being profoundly transformed by climate change. This has implications on terrestrial and marine ecosystems, affecting those who live on and from them. It is time to develop a shared scientific vision to protect these vital ecosystems as best we can, produce science for evidence based decision-making and enhance collaborative scientific investigations of these issues. The G7 Academies propose the following: Research cooperation relying on augmented interdisciplinary research supported by large scale international science initiatives in combination with cooperative decision-making among Arctic nations; Training individuals from a diversity of fields and backgrounds, including those residing in the Arctic, to ensure the necessary scientific capacity to address global and local issues; Accessible, usable and timely science databases that can be shared among all stakeholders and decision makers; Programs on remote sensing linked with in-situ monitoring activities integrating sustained highinclination satellite missions, new technologies for underwater measurements and regionally integrated in-situ monitoring that incorporates local knowledge.

https://www.leopoldina.org/publikationen/detailansicht/publication/the-global-arctic-the-sustainability-of-communities-in-the-context-of-changing-ocean-systems-2018/

09 / 09 / 2019

Raw materials for the energy transition

German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina; acatech – National Academy of Science and Engineering; Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities

The energy transition affects Germany’s raw material requirements. If it is successfully implemented, the consumption of fossil energy sources such as coal, oil and natural gas will decrease. Moreover, even during the period of transition towards a more sustainable energy system, carbon emissions could be reduced by replacing coal with natural gas. In addition, bioenergy could help offset the volatile feed-in of wind and solar energy, thus contributing to a stable energy supply based on renewable energies. At the same time, however, the expansion of renewable energy plants, storage systems and intelligent grids creates an increased demand for elements such as steel, copper, cobalt, lithium, rare earths, the platinum group elements, indium or tellurium. From a geological point of view, there are sufficient metals and energy resources around the world to create a climate-friendly energy system by 2050. The crucial point, however, will be to ensure that the economic viability of the respective investments is not ruined by any sharp increase in the prices of the resources required. If the German economy is to secure its long-term supply of raw materials, a forward looking political strategy is required. This position paper presents measures apt to contribute to a secure, affordable, environmentally friendly and socially acceptable supply of raw materials for the energy transition.

https://www.leopoldina.org/publikationen/detailansicht/publication/raw-materials-for-the-energy-transition-2018/

09 / 09 / 2019

How Do We Want to Live Tomorrow?

Viktoria BERGER, Fernando Mainardi FAN, Friederike GABEL, Paulo Henrique GALVÃO, Maria GIES, …   see more contributors

Daniel GRABNER, Simone LANGHANS, Priscilla MACEDO-MOURA, Anderson Abe DE SOUZA MACHADO. Rodrigo Lilla MANZIONE, Elena MATTA, Ana Andreu MENDEZ, Marcio Augusto Ernesto DE MORAES, Ana Carolina Danie MORIHAMA, Anderson Luiz Ribeiro DE PAIVA, Natalia Andriciol PERIOTTO, Gwendolin PORST, Caroline RIGOTOO, Benedikt ROTERS, Stephan SCHULZ, Talita Fernanda DAS GRAÇAS SILVA, Matheus Martins DE SOUSA, Alexandra SUHOGUSOFF, Ingo Danie WAHNFRIED, Christine WOLF

German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina; Brazilian Academy of Sciences; Centre for Water and Environmental Research

More than half of the human population currently lives in urban areas and according to the United Nations, cities will be the living space of an additional 2.5 billion people by the year 2050 (UN, 2015b). The proportion and speed of this urban growth increase the pressure on water resources, and this is often seen negatively. However, this challenge can also be a chance to substantially improve the quality of life in urban areas, if we consider how we want to live tomorrow and actively shape our future. As a group of interdisciplinary young scientists authoring the current science policy report, we agreed that we want to live in cities where sustainable, integrated watershed management guarantees public health and environmental safety. This requires sanitation and rainwater management, solutions for dealing with contaminants, such as micropollutants, as well as information flows and public involvement in water management. Integrated watershed management as part of urban planning takes into account interdisciplinary relationships and connects different sectors, for example city administration, health providers and water managers. It also ensures access to sustainable, adaptable, effective and resilient rain and wastewater management, which includes the specific needs of vulnerable groups. Such a rain and wastewater management considers water reuse as a possibility to increase the available water supply. A growing number and increasing concentration of micropollutants in the aquatic environment are a health risk. It is important to understand their fate and effects and to develop appropriate management strategies. In such decision-making processes, all aspects of water management should be included and local stakeholders involved. Moreover, comprehensive and optimized information flows improve the understanding of water-related problems and must be used to help communities to set priorities, take action and assume responsibilities. Education, capacity building and community engagement are particularly important for creating ownership, identification with water resources and environmental consciousness. Further research is needed in these areas to better understand challenges and chances of water management in growing urban areas and to develop scientifically based solutions. This scientific knowledge will build the basis for policy-making and implementation of actions in urban water management. In this way, we believe a better and more desirable urban environment can be achieved for future generations.

https://www.leopoldina.org/publikationen/detailansicht/publication/how-do-we-want-to-live-tomorrow-2017/

06 / 09 / 2019

The challenge of neurodegenerative diseases in an aging population

Maryse LASSONDE, Sébastien CANDEL, Jörg HACKER, Alberto QUADRIO-CURZIO, Takashi ONISHI, Venki RAMAKRISHNAN, …   see more contributors

Marcia McNUTT

G7 Science Academies

World population growth has been accompanied by a progressive increase in the number of older people. Government-supported medical research and scientific discoveries as well as improved education and living conditions have greatly reduced the chances of pandemics caused by infectious pathogens. In developed countries, life expectancy is now rising well above 80 years. Although in older people the prevailing causes of death are still cardiovascular diseases and cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and other neurodegenerative disorders that are known to be strongly age-related are among the top ten illnesses ending with death that cannot yet be cured or slowed significantly.

https://www.leopoldina.org/publikationen/detailansicht/publication/the-challenge-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-in-an-aging-population-2017/

06 / 09 / 2019

New economic growth: the role of science, technology, innovation and infrastructure

Maryse LASSONDE, Sébastien CANDEL, Jörg HACKER, Alberto QUADRIO-CURZIO, Takashi ONISHI, Venki RAMAKRISHNAN, …   see more contributors

Marcia McNUTT

G7 Science Academies

Science, technology and innovation have lang been important drivers of economic growth and human development. Growth relies on the integration of basic and applied research, at both public and private levels, on an international scale. The challenge is to ensure that, even during phases of economic slowdown, science and technology continue to support the objectives of sustainability and improved living standards in all countries.

https://www.leopoldina.org/publikationen/detailansicht/publication/new-economic-growth-2017/

06 / 09 / 2019

Cultural heritage: building resilience to natural disasters

Maryse LASSONDE, Sébastien CANDEL, Jörg HACKER, Alberto QUADRIO-CURZIO, Takashi ONISHI, Venki RAMAKRISHNAN, …   see more contributors

Marcia McNUTT

G7 Science Academies

This statement focuses an the resilience of cultural heritage to natural disasters. Man-made disasters are excluded from consideration, although the devastation they induce is often comparable or even greater than the effects of natural catastrophes, as shown by recent and less recent wars or terrorist attacks. However, as man-made disasters invariably have societal causes, responses to them need strategies distinct from those dealing with natural disasters and need to be addressed separately. In spite of numerous declarations concerning the protection of cultural heritage, national governments have been slow in taking effective actions. This is of serious concern since the list of recent catastrophic events that have severely affected the cultural heritage worldwide is extensive. Cultural heritage has suffered from the devastating effects of earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, debris flows, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and fires. Unfortunately, for the most part, little has been learnt from these catastrophic events.

https://www.leopoldina.org/publikationen/detailansicht/publication/cultural-heritage-building-resilience-to-natural-disasters-2017/

06 / 09 / 2019

Opportunities for future research and innovation on food and nutrition security and agriculture

Volker TER MEULEN, Tim BENTON, Christiane DIEHL, Mohamed HASSAN, Sheryl HENDRIKS, Elizabeth …   see more contributors

Hodson DE JARAMILLO, Molly HURLEY-DEPRET, Lyunhae KIM, Yoo Hang KIM, Krishan LAL, Jeremy McNEILL, Paul MOUGHAN, Jackie OLANG-KADO, Jutta SCHNITZER-UNGEFUG, Aifric O´SULLIVAN, Katherine VAMMEN

InterAcademy Partnership

All countries face the problem of combatting malnutrition in its various forms: undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies as well as overweight and obesity. The scale and nature of these problems of course differ across countries and their populations. Latest data from the United Nations indicate worrying trends in global food and nutrition security that must be tackled. Science has the potential to find sustainable solutions for national and global food systems relating to the complex interplay of issues spanning health, nutrition, agriculture, climate change, ecology and human behaviour. Project design and purpose With this report, global academies of sciences are expressing their concern about adverse tendencies in food, nutrition and agriculture, and identify science-based initiatives that could contribute to solutions. Academies of science have a substantial history of interest and achievement in these areas. The academies also took note of important other food and agriculture strategy and assessment papers. The present work by the InterAcademy Partnership (IAP), the global network of science academies, brings together established regional networks of academies, forming a new collaboration to ensure that the voice of science is heard in addressing societal priorities. The added value aimed for with this academies’ programme is to bring the science power of academies to focus on the protracted food, nutrition and agriculture issues. This seems increasingly called for as basic science – well represented in academies – becomes more and more relevant and integrated with applied problem-solving science in nutrition, food and agriculture. Another contribution is the emphasis on food systems and in that context a significant emphasis on health of people and the environment.

https://easac.eu/fileadmin/PDF_s/reports_statements/Food_Security/Global/IAP_FNSA_Web_complete_19Nov.pdf

06 / 09 / 2019

A Guide to SDG Interactions: From Science to Implementation

Anthony CAPON, Ralph CHAPMAN, Elinor CHISHOLM, Jean-Luc CHOTTE, Christopher N.H. DOLL, Carole …   see more contributors

DURUSSEL, Luis Gomez ECHEVERRI, David GRIGGS, Philippa HOWDEN-CHAPMAN, David McCOLLUM, Ludovic MOLLIER, Måns NILSSON, Barbara NEUMANN, Simon PARKINSON, Keywan RIAHI, Claudia RINGLER, Stefanie SCHMIDT, Frédérique SEYLER, José SIRI, Sebastian UNGER, Martin VISBECK, Yvonne WAWERU

International Council for Science

The United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was adopted in September 2015. It is underpinned by 17 Sustainable Development Goals (sdgs) and 169 targets. National policy -makers now face the challenge of implementing this indivisible agenda and achieving progress across the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development world - wide. As the process moves towards implementation, there is a need to address the scope and systemic nature of the 2030 Agenda and the urgency of the challenges. This requires a wide range of tools and science-based analysis to navigate that complexity and to realise the ambition.This report explores the nature of interlinkages between the sdgs. It is based on the premise that a science-informed analysis of interactions across sdg domains – which is currently lacking – can support more coherent and effective decision-making, and better facilitate follow-up and monitoring of progress. Under standing possible trade-offs as well as synergistic relations between the different sdgs is crucial for achieving long-lasting sustainable development outcomes. A key objective of the scoring approach described here is to stimulate more science-policy dialogue on the importance of interactions, to provide a starting point for policy-makers and other stakeholders to set their priorities and implementation strategies, and to engage the policy community in further knowledge developments in this field.

http://www.academies.fi/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/SDGs-Guide-to-Interactions.pdf

06 / 09 / 2019

Realizing our digital future and shaping its impact on knowledge, industry, and the workforce

Académie des Sciences

Digital technologies are transforming the early 21st century, leading to the creation of entirely new industries based upon machine learning and artificial intelligence and lowering barriers to participation in and access to data, education, and communication tools for citizens around the world. It is believed that international cooperation will be essential in key areas of security, accessibility, and regulation to secure a digital future that is inclusive, democratically governed and ethically minded in which open data and reliable information can circulate.

https://www.academie-sciences.fr/pdf/rapport/G7_Digital_EN.pdf

06 / 09 / 2019

Protection of animals used for scientific purposes – Pertaining to the 2017 Revision of Directive 2010/63/EU

Académie des Sciences

Progress in science and medicine has and will continue to require the use of animal experimentation. However, the acceptability of animal testing has been justly questioned in view of the fact that animals, because they are sensitive beings,are worthy of respect,a major ethical issue. There have been calls to question the whole or parts of animal experimentation in Europe. A petition to this end was addressed to the European Union I, whose Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes II stipulates in Article 58 that it should be reviewed at the latest by 10 November 2017. It is against this background that four French academies have drafted and signed, after joint reflection on this issue, the following analysis and recommendations.

https://www.academie-sciences.fr/pdf/rapport/avis_271117_gb.pdf

06 / 09 / 2019

Improving global Health: Strategies and tools to combat communicable and non-communicable diseases

Académie des Sciences

Communicable (infectious) and non-communicable (non-infectious) diseases seriously endanger individual wellbeing and global health, and threaten the global economy. Strong short- and long-term evidence-based strategies are needed. The G20 Academies of Sciences call for (1) the strengthening of healthcare and public health systems, (2) applying existing and emerging knowledge, (3) addressing the broader social and environmental determinants of health, (4) reducing serious risk factors for disease through education and promotion of healthy life styles, (5) ensuring access to health resources globally, and (6) enhancing and extending robust strategies for surveillance and information-sharing. Furthering research is a prerequisite for providing knowledge and new tools to meet these challenges.

https://www.academie-sciences.fr/pdf/rapport/2017_G20.pdf

06 / 09 / 2019

Opportunities for soil sustainability in Europe

Vesselin ALEXANDROV, András BÁLDI, Bruno CARLI, Pavel CUDLIN, Mike JONES, Atte KORHOLA, …   see more contributors

Andrej KRANJC, Rajmund MICHALSKI, Francisco Garcia NOVO, Július OSZLÁNYI, Filip Duarte SANTOS, Bernhard SCHINK, John SHEPHEARD, Tarmo SOOMERE, Louise E.M. VET, Lars WALLØE, Anders WIJKMAN, Christos S. ZEREFOS, Michael NORTON

European Academies Science Advisory Council

Soils provide numerous essential services in terrestrial ecosystems, ranging from the support of plant growth in agriculture and forestry to moderation of flood risks, water purification, large-scale carbon storage, and support of biodiversity. However, despite soils’ essential roles, they are threatened by sealing, compaction, reductions in quality and organic-carbon content, and erosion, and insufficiently included in sustainability planning in the EU. A multidisciplinary group of European experts has examined the implications of recent scientific research for integrated policy solutions towards ensuring the sustainability of Europe’s soils, and identified many opportunities for policy-makers to safeguard this valuable resource for the benefit of the EU’s citizens.

https://easac.eu/fileadmin/PDF_s/reports_statements/EASAC_Soils_complete_Web-ready_210918.pdf

06 / 09 / 2019

EASAC and the New Plant Breeding Techniques

European Academies Science Advisory Council

The forthcoming decision by the European Court of Justice on the regulatory situation relating to those techniques in plant breeding that draw on advances in molecular biology, is anticipated to be very significant for agricultural innovation in Europe. It is expected that the decision will clarify the status of certain new plant breeding techniques, including genome editing. We welcome the efforts to resolve current legislative uncertainties. New Breeding Techniques have the potential to contribute much to intensified crop productivity, sustainable agriculture and the response to climate change. For example, research aims to develop new cultivars with higher yield potential, enhanced abiotic and biotic stress resistance and improved nutrient composition. The increasing precision and targeting now possible in plant breeding represents a big change from conventional breeding approaches. EASAC has previously advised that responsible innovative agriculture merits consideration of deployment of all available approaches, traditional and novel, building on existing achievements for good agronomic practice. Moreover, setting priorities for sustainable agricultural production within an integrative food systems approach must also take account of pressures on other critical natural resources and encompass both supply-side and demand-side issues: reducing food waste and changing to healthier consumption patterns. Molecular biology can play its part and we now take this opportunity to reiterate EASAC’s previous advice on general principles on how best to capitalise on genomics research as one of the approaches to tackling the challenges for food and nutrition security.

https://easac.eu/fileadmin/PDF_s/reports_statements/Genome_Editing/EASAC_and_New_Plant_Breeding_Techniques_July_2018_final.pdf

06 / 09 / 2019

Findings and recommendations from the Smart Villages Initiative 2014–2017

European Academies Science Advisory Council

This summary of key findings and recommendations of the Smart Villages Initiative over the period 2014–2017 is intended to inform policy-makers and development organisations in the European Union concerned with rural development in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It draws on a detailed report of the findings (Holmes, 2017), which in turn provides links to the wealth of underpinning material generated by the Smart Village Initiative’s engagement programmes and research over the 3-year period (available at www.e4sv.org). The aim of the Smart Villages Initiative has been to identify the framework conditions necessary for the provision of energy services to villages to enable the livelihood opportunities, provision of services (healthcare, education, clean water and sanitation) and empowerment embodied in the Smart Villages concept. In this concept, the provision of sustainable energy services to rural communities, in turn enabling the connectivity made possible by modern information and communication technologies, can have a catalytic impact on the lives of villagers when appropriately integrated with other rural development initiatives (Holmes and van Gevelt, 2015). Smart villages provide many of the benefits of 21st Century life to rural communities, and reflect a level of rural development consistent with achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

https://easac.eu/fileadmin/PDF_s/reports_statements/Smart_Villages/EASAC_Smart_Villages_Statement_June_2018.pdf

06 / 09 / 2019

Commentary on Forest Bioenergy and Carbon Neutrality

Vesselin ALEXANDROV, András BÁLDI, Bruno CARLI, Pavel CUDLIN, Mike JONES, Atte KORHOLA, …   see more contributors

Andrej KRANJC, Rajmund MICHALSKI, Francisco Garcia NOVO, Július OSZLÁNYI, Filip Duarte SANTOS, Bernhard SCHINK, John SHEPHEARD, Tarmo SOOMERE, Louise E.M. VET, Lars WALLØE, Anders WIJKMAN, Christos S. ZEREFOS, Michael NORTON

European Academies Science Advisory Council

Since the publication of its report on “Multi-functionality and Sustainability in the European Union’s Forests” in April 2017, the European Academies’ Science Advisory Council (EASAC) has engaged with the European Commission, the European Parliament and other stakeholders on the science underlying the use of forest biomass as a form of ‘renewable’ energy, within the debate and negotiations on the ‘Clean Energy for all Europeans’ package. Our report (inter alia) analysed current trends to substitute fossil fuels by forest biomass at a large scale, and the relevance of the concept of carbon neutrality to its justification. We highlighted, for example, that carbon emissions per unit of electricity generated from forest biomass are higher than from coal and thus it is inevitable that the initial impact of replacing coal with forest biomass in power stations is to increase atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Regulations thus need to be carefully designed to ensure that only uses making a positive contribution to climate change mitigation are allowed to be regarded as ‘renewable’ energy.

https://easac.eu/fileadmin/PDF_s/reports_statements/Carbon_Neutrality/EASAC_commentary_on_Carbon_Neutrality_15_June_2018.pdf

06 / 09 / 2019

Vaccination in Europe

European Academies Science Advisory Council

An EASAC and FEAM commentary on the EC Roadmap ‘Strengthened cooperation against vaccine preventable diseases’

https://easac.eu/fileadmin/PDF_s/reports_statements/Vaccination/EASAC_FEAM_Commentary_on_Vaccines_April_2018_FINAL.pdf

06 / 09 / 2019

Extreme weather events in Europe

European Academies Science Advisory Council

EASAC report number 22 (EASAC, 2013) examined trends in extreme weather within Europe. That report was published because, from an economic perspective, risks are not just through the change in the mean of climate variables such as temperature, precipitation or wind, or in derived variables like storm surge or water runoff, but also the changes in their extremes. As a result, that study looked at trends in the specific extremes of heat and cold, precipitation, storms, winds and surges, and drought. The report found evidence for overall increases in the frequency and economic costs of extreme events, which emphasised the importance of society adapting its future planning to allow for these new extremes. In 2017, members of the original expert group, under the auspices of the Norwegian Academy of Sciences and Letters and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, updated some of the statistics on which the original report was based. There has also been more recent evidence on some of the underlying drivers, which include weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and other phenomena such as a weakening and meandering jet stream. This short addendum to our earlier report presents these findings, which update and extend the previous analysis and confirm the conclusions in the original report.

https://easac.eu/fileadmin/PDF_s/reports_statements/Extreme_Weather/EASAC_Statement_Extreme_Weather_Events_March_2018_FINAL.pdf

06 / 09 / 2019

Negative emission technologies: What role in meeting Paris Agreement targets?

European Academies Science Advisory Council

In a new report by the European Academies’ Science Advisory Council (EASAC), senior scientists from across Europe have evaluated the potential contribution of negative emission technologies (NETs) to allow humanity to meet the Paris Agreement’s targets of avoiding dangerous climate change. They find that NETs have “limited realistic potential” to halt increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at the scale envisioned in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios. This new report finds that none of the NETs has the potential to deliver carbon removals at the gigaton (Gt) scale and at the rate of deployment envisaged by the IPCC, including reforestation, afforestation, carbon-friendly agriculture, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCs), enhanced weathering, ocean fertilisation, or direct air capture and carbon storage (DACCs). “Scenarios and projections that suggest that NETs’ future contribution to CO2 removal will allow Paris targets to be met appear optimistic on the basis of current knowledge and should not form the basis of developing, analysing, and comparing scenarios of longer-term energy pathways for the EU. Relying on NETs to compensate for failures to adequately mitigate emissions may have serious implications for future generations," state the European science academies.

https://easac.eu/fileadmin/PDF_s/reports_statements/Negative_Carbon/EASAC_Report_on_Negative_Emission_Technologies.pdf

06 / 09 / 2019

Opportunities and Challenges for Research on Food and Nutrition Security and Agriculture in Europe

Volker TER MEULEN, Joachim VON BRAUN, Dag Lorents AKSNES, Tim …   see more contributors

BENTON, Alberto GARRIDO, Charles GODFRAY, Anne-Marie HERMANSSON, Sander JANSSEN, Christian JUNG, Pavel KRASILNIKOV, Aifric O’SULLIVAN, Jozsef POPP, Angelika SCHNIEKE, Barbara WROBLEWSKA, Claudia CANALES, Robin FEARS

European Academies Science Advisory Council

National academies of science have a long tradition of engaging widely to strengthen the evidence base to underpin the delivery of enhanced food and nutrition security at regional and national levels. EASAC, the European Academies Science Advisory Council, has produced this report for European audiences as a contribution to a project worldwide initiated by IAP, the InterAcademy Partnership, the global network of science academies. The IAP work brings together regional perspectives in parallel from Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe on the opportunities for the science-policy interface, identifying how research can contribute to resolving challenges for agriculture, food systems and nutrition. Our EASAC report combines analysis of the current status in Europe with exploration of ways forward. Overconsumption of calorie-dense foods leading to overweight and obesity creates a major public health problem in Europe but Europeans are not immune from other concerns about food and nutrition security and must also recognise the impact of their activities on the rest of the world. We define the goal of food and nutrition security as providing access for all to a healthy and affordable diet that is environmentally sustainable. We recognise the necessity to take account of diversity: in food systems and dietary intakes within and between countries, and in the variability of nutrient requirements in vulnerable groups within populations and across the individual's lifecycle.

https://easac.eu/fileadmin/PDF_s/reports_statements/Food_Security/EASAC_FNSA_Report_Complete.pdf

06 / 09 / 2019

Homeopathic products and practices

Volker Ter Meulen, Jean-Francois Bach, Helmut Denk, Georg Ertl, George Griffin, Kristian …   see more contributors

Gundersen, Pavel Jungwirth, Dan Larhammar, Vecsei Laszlo, Alberto Mantovani, Jos Van Der Meer, Robin Fears

European Academies Science Advisory Council

EASAC, the European Academies' Science Advisory Council, is publishing this Statement to build on recent work by its member academies to reinforce criticism of the health and scientific claims made for homeopathic products. The analysis and conclusions are based on the excellent science-based assessments already published by authoritative and impartial bodies. The fundamental importance of allowing and supporting consumer choice requires that consumers and patients are supplied with evidence-based, accurate and clear information. It is, therefore, essential to implement a standardised, knowledge-based regulatory framework to cover product efficacy, safety and quality, and accurate advertising practices, across the European Union (EU).

Contact the Academy for the full report https://easac.eu/fileadmin/PDF_s/reports_statements/EASAC_Homepathy_statement_web_final.pdf

05 / 09 / 2019



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