Publications

SAPEA publications:

SAPEA publications, including Evidence Review Reports are available here.

Publications from academies and European Academy Networks:

SAPEA provides access to the knowledge and expertise from over 100 academies, young academies and learned societies from over 40 countries across Europe. Over the next few months, we will be developing a database of publications from the European Academy Networks and their member academies. Use the box below to search for keywords, academies or contributors.



Misuse potential and biosecurity in life sciences research. A discussion basis for scientists on how to address the dual use dilemma of biological research

Franziska Oeschger, Ursula Jenal

Swiss Academy of Sciences

Research in the life sciences produces knowledge and technologies that significantly benefit human, animal, and environmental health as well as the sustain- able management of ecosystems. At the same time, certain discoveries emerging from the life sciences are capable of causing harm to people and the environment if used improperly or with ill intent. This is known as the “dual use dilemma” – arguably inherent to all forms of innovation. Concerns about bioterrorism and recent technological advances in gene synthesis and gene editing have brought the dual use nature of biological research into public focus. The potential for misuse is especially apparent with respect to research on human pathogens. Although less obvious, there is also misuse potential in connection with research involving animal and plant pathogens – or involving no pathogens at all. Indeed, awareness of such misuse potential is needed in virtually all research fields involving use of biological material and development and application of new technologies. Life science research can also be misused in ways that may not directly threaten human health and safety, the environment, or national security, but could threaten the well-being and dignity of isolated individuals or specific groups. For instance, genetic information and other health-related data could be used in a way that discriminates against certain individuals or stigmatizes particular communities. Athletes’ use or misuse of pharmaceuticals or neurotechnologies to obtain an unfair advantage in sports competitions is another example. Indeed, it is important to remain aware and to carefully consider all possible misuses of life science research. However, this document focuses in particular on the need to discuss security-related risks of life science research – a realization emerging from the recent history of biological weapons and so-called bioterrorism.

Download the publication

31 / 12 / 2017

New plant breeding techniques for Swiss agriculture: significant potential, uncertain future

Christoph Lüthi, Jörg Romeis, Felix Mauch, Ueli Grossniklaus, Stefan Kohler, Bruno Studer

Swiss Academy of Sciences

The genetic makeup of plants can be modified precisely by means of new breeding techniques. Typically, these changes could also occur naturally and, in the process, no genetic material that is unrelated to the species remains in the plant. The techniques significantly broaden the possibilities for plant breeding, thereby potentially helping to make Swiss agriculture more environmentally friendly, economically viable and ultimately more sustainable. As some varieties developed by using the new breeding techniques already exist and new ones are expected to follow shortly, it is imperative to determine whether or not plants engineered by means of these new techniques are subject to the Gene Technology Act. From a natural scientific point of view, there is no reason for a strict regulation of plants bred in this fashion.

Download the publication

31 / 12 / 2017

Media and democracy in the digitalisation age

Manuel Puppis, Michael Schenk, Brigitte Hofstetter

TA-SWISS Foundation for Technology Assessment – a Centre of competence of the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences

Only those who are well informed can make informed decisions. In a direct democracy, in which citizens have to vote on complex issues at the ballot box, comprehensive, balanced information is essential. Quality media thus provide the lubricant that keeps the cogs of the political machine running smoothly. But the media sector is in upheaval: advertisements, which were still contributing a large part of the publishing houses’ income pot in the 1990s and together with sales revenue were thus co-financing journalistic output, have been switched to the Internet. Search engines and social media such as Facebook or Twitter in particular, which contribute no added value themselves, have taken over a large proportion of advertising. News and data are accessible for free on the Internet around the clock. And the free newspapers launched since the late 1990s are also undercutting the model of the paid-for daily and weekly newspaper. The question that arises is how the new information channels impact on the political culture in Switzerland and how high-quality journalism can be funded in the future.

https://www.ta-swiss.ch/?redirect=getfile.php&cmd[getfile][uid]=3244

31 / 12 / 2017

Spotlight on climate in Switzerland

Sarah Arnold, Karin Ammon, Sanja Hosi, Christoph Kull, Gabriele Müller-Ferch, Urs Neu

Swiss Academy of Sciences

The average surface temperature of the Earth has seen extraordinarily large increases since the middle of the 20th century – and we know why. It is primarily we humans who change the earth’s energy balance by releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Because of the particular sensitivity of its natural systems to climate change, Switzerland has a vested interest in a quick and comprehensive shift by the international community to a carbon-neutral economy and lifestyle.

http://swiss-academies.ch/dms/publikationen/12/Spotlight-on-climate-in-Switzerland_Briefly-explained.pdf

31 / 12 / 2017

Response to Building our Industrial Strategy Green Paper

The Royal Society

The Society welcomes the emphasis on science and skills within the Green Paper. These are crucial areas in addressing the UK’s productivity gap. Combined with the government spending commitments in the 2016 Autumn Statement and the creation of UK Research and Innovation, this is a strong signal that the government recognises the value of scientific research and innovation to the UK’s future. The society also welcomes the Government’s ongoing commitment to supporting the full spectrum of research, with resources being allocated on the basis of excellence. To have a successful industrial strategy, it is crucial that the UK has the investment, skills and physical, digital and regulatory infrastructure to capitalize on existing and emerging technologies. Consistent leadership, coordination, planning and implementation are required over decades, not years, providing a consistent policy and investment environment. This mustsupport the full spectrum of research and innovation including established industries, scaleups, start-ups and academia.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2017/consultation-response-industrial-strategy-green-paper/

14 / 11 / 2017

Acidification of Swedish seas in a changing environment: causes, consequences, and responses

J Havenhand, A-S Crépin, HL Filipsson, S Jagers, D Langlet, S Matti, S …   see more contributors

Niiranen, M Troell, LG Anderson, V Galaz, E Kritzberg, D Turner, M Winder, P de Wit

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

Increasing temperatures, changing weather patterns, shrinking ice-sheets, and shifting species distributions all bear witness to global change. These changes have been most keenly observed in terrestrial systems, however the world’s oceans are also changing, albeit less obviously: ocean temperatures are rising; marine species ranges are shifting poleward; and ocean pH is falling (a phenomenon known as ocean acidification1). The latest research indicates strongly that the root cause of these changes lays in human policies and behaviours – notably market failures, governance failures, and spurious incentives – that have driven our dependence on fossil fuels, and elevated CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The consequences for natural systems of continuing “business as usual” will be increased rates of ocean warming and acidification that will severely challenge many marine species, and cause substantial shifts in marine ecosystems and the services they provide. How we, as a society, respond will not only depend on the economic, societal and political consequences of these changes, but also on the strategies we identify to mitigate, and adapt to, them. Here we detail the current state of knowledge of the causes, consequences, and potential responses to ocean acidification in Swedish coastal seas under global change, with a focus on ocean acidification. We note the particular problems – and potential interim solutions – presented by coastal seas, and identify key knowledge gaps, and implementation needs.

Download the publication

14 / 11 / 2017

Valuing dedicated storage in electricity grids

Mark O'Malley, Michael Ornetzeder, Jan Desmet, William D'haeseleer, Hannele Holttinen, Angelika Heinzel, Marc Oliver Bettzüge, …   see more contributors

Raphael Moissis, Ciara O'Dwyer, Richard van de Sanden, David Rios, Göran Andersson, Thomas Schmidt, Peter Bruce, Göran Strbac, Juha Kiviluoma, Christoph Ritz, William Gillett

European Academies Science Advisory Council

Large-scale electricity storage is making a come-back because it can contribute to the flexibility which is needed by system operators to manage the increasing penetration of variable renewable electricity generation on the grid. At the same time, the interest of householders in small scale storage for self-consumption has already led to more than 40,000 small household PV plus battery systems being installed in Europe since 2013, mainly in Germany. EASAC's team of scientists nominated by Europe's 28 national science academies has been working for two years to develop an independent view for EU policy makers of the value of dedicated storage on electricity grids from a scientific perspective. Their report concludes that the value of storage is system dependent and that it can contribute to balancing, reserves, capacity and generation adequacy as well as congestion management. However, in electricity markets, it must compete with flexible generation, demand response, interconnections, and curtailment.

http://www.easac.eu/fileadmin/PDF_s/reports_statements/Electricity_Storage/EASAC_Electricity_Web_low_res_30_June.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

The Science Academy Report on Academic Freedoms 2015-2016

The Science Academy (Bilim Akademisi - Turkey)

The 2015-2016 review of the situation of academic freedoms in Turkey.

http://en.bilimakademisi.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/The-Science-Academy-Report-on-ACADEMIC-FREEDOMS-2015-2016.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

Use of neuraminidase inhibitors in influenza

Patrick Sissons, Jeffrey Almond, Deborah Ashby, Chris Butler, Jeremy Farrar, John Skehel

The Academy of Medical Sciences (UK)

Pandemic influenza tops the UK’s National Risk Register due to the probability of a pandemic occurring and the social and economic disruption that could result from an influenza strain causing severe disease. The principal class of antivirals licensed for the treatment and prophylaxis of seasonal and pandemic influenza are neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). Questions have been raised for some years about the efficacy and effectiveness of these NAIs. The Cochrane Collaboration’s publication, in April 2014 in part reactivated this debate. Three further publications of analyses of the use of NAIs for treatment and prophylaxis have added to the evidence base and debate. In response to a request from the UK Department of Health, a small, independent steering group was established by the Academy of Medical Sciences and the Wellcome Trust to provide commentary on the implications of these new analyses, consider the pipeline for new treatments for influenza, and identify research priorities.

https://acmedsci.ac.uk/file-download/38069-561595082cd83.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

Improving the health of the public by 2040

Anne Johnson, Carol Brayne, Rachel Cooper, Yvonne Doyle, David Ford, Sarah Harper, Srinivasa …   see more contributors

Vittal Katikireddi, Catherine Law,Paul Little, Sally Macintyre, Johan Mackenbach, Theresa Marteau, Jonathan McShane, Geoff Mulgan, Peter Piot, Jules Pretty, David Stuckler

The Academy of Medical Sciences (UK)

Over the coming decades, the UK population will face a wide range of complex health challenges and opportunities, many of which can only be fully addressed through strategies to secure and improve the health of the public as a whole. This report explores how to organise our research environment to generate and translate the evidence needed to underpin such strategies.

https://acmedsci.ac.uk/file-download/41399-5807581429f81.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

Improving recognition of team science contributions in biomedical research careers

Anne Ridley, Mark Bass, Buzz Baum, Robert Burgoyne, David Dunger, John Fisher, …   see more contributors

Amy Foulkes, Philippa Saunders, Caroline Savage, Eleftheria Zeggini

The Academy of Medical Sciences (UK)

Team science is becoming more common as researchers seek to solve global challenges to realise economic and societal benefits. Sequencing the human genome, major clinical trials and longitudinal cohort studies have involved large teams working together to solve complex problems. Smaller-scale team science is also on the rise, driven by groups collaborating with others who provide expertise in complementary areas such as imaging and statistics. Working in this way can be hugely beneficial for the scientific endeavour but at what cost for the individuals undertaking the work? The Academy of Medical Sciences and others have explored whether biomedical researchers are being encouraged, supported and rewarded for participating in team-based approaches. Our findings indicate that academic reward and recognition systems have failed to match the growth of team working; academia is rooted in a tradition of individual and small-team scholarship where the emphasis is on leadership and independence.

https://acmedsci.ac.uk/file-download/38721-56defebabba91.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

Culture of research and support for young scientists in medicine

Beatrice Beck, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Philipp Heitz, Ulrich Hübscher, Samia Hurst, Wolfgang …   see more contributors

Langhans, Peter Meier-Abt, Heini Murer, Arnaud Perrier, Jean Daniel Tissot, Hanno Würbel, Gregor Zünd

Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences

For some years now, the quality of medical research has been called into question; at the same time, the shortage of young researchers in academic medicine is recognised as a growing problem. Since it can be assumed that there is a direct link between a research culture of integrity and trustworthiness and the motivation of young scientists to pursue a biomedical research career, the SAMS proposes a number of measures designed to improve both the culture of research and the situation of young scientists.

http://www.samw.ch/dam/jcr:38206bdc-fef2-477f-ad8b-047ab73d0941/position_paper_sams_culture_of%20research_2016.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

Promoting open access to research results

Nicolas Sartori, Christian Fuhrer, Julien Junod, Lothar Nunnenmacher, Dirk Verdicchio

Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences

The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences (SAMS) advocates close links between clinical practice and medical science and dialogue with society. Accordingly, it supports the implementation of open access. The SAMS takes the view that open access to research results is the best way of ensuring and improving the availability of information for researchers, healthcare professionals, patients and the general public. In view of the latest global developments in open access described in this position paper, the SAMS calls on publishers and scientific actors to facilitate and expedite the transition to open access, in order to maximize the benefits of medical research for society.

http://www.samw.ch/dam/jcr:6cab3096-761b-4209-adcf-530f9c2adc0e/position_paper_sams_open_access.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

Medical practice in respect of detained persons

Jean-Pierre Restellini, Daphné Berner-Chervet, Peter Grütter, Olivier Guillod, Joseph Osterwalder, Fritz Ramseier, Ursula Steiner-König, André Vallotton, Michel Vallotton, Dominique Nickel

Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences

The participation of physicians in police coercive measures, especially during the deportation of persons expelled from Switzerland, has raised numerous questions among the public. In response to the expectations of the various parties concerned, the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences (SAMS) has drawn up guidelines for physicians who may be called on to serve in this highly sensitive area, where ethical boundaries can easily be overstepped.

http://www.samw.ch/dam/jcr:88cf04da-889a-43c4-9841-65f21017999d/guidelines_sams_detained_persons_2015.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

Coercive measures in medicine

Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences

Patients should be able to give and justify their consent to medical measures in an autonomous manner – i.e. on the basis of reliable information, following careful assessment and in accordance with their personal values. Autonomy is thus a central concept in medical ethics. Any use of force runs counter to the principle of respect for autonomy, and yet there are certain medical situations in which coercive measures are unavoidable. This may be the case, in particular, where it is not otherwise possible to comply with the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence. The present guidelines provide a framework for addressing questions arising in this thorny area.

http://www.samw.ch/dam/jcr:e8385511-4a5d-40a9-b905-2c29aa5e73d6/guidelines_sams_coercive_measures_2015.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

The role of the Engineering in the energy sector: status and perspectives” El papel de las ingenierías en la energía: situación y perspectivas”

Royal Academy of Engineering of Spain

As long as in the power generation, transmission and distribution, the Engineering runs from the conceptual design till the operation stage, and is strongly, in some case decisively, involved.

http://www.raing.es/es/publicaciones/libros/el-papel-de-las-ingenier-en-la-energ

14 / 11 / 2017

An insight into modern manufacturing EtF report final version

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK)

This report tells the story of UK manufacturing from the perspective of the businesses involved. This is not about detailed econometric analysis or statistics; however, by using the manufacturers' words and experiences, the report sets out a snapshot of the issues that matter to manufacturers.

http://www.raeng.org.uk/publications/reports/an-insight-into-modern-manufacturing-etf-report

14 / 11 / 2017

Wind energy: implications of large-scale deployment on the GB electricity system

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK)

Academy produced a report that assesses the potential for wind energy to contribute to meeting the government's targets of providing 15% of the UK's energy from renewable sources by 2020 and cutting 80% of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050

http://www.raeng.org.uk/publications/reports/wind-energy-implications-of-large-scale-deployment

14 / 11 / 2017

Engineering in Society

Royal Academy of Engineering (UK)

This e-book aims to provide students with a wider perspective on the profession of engineering. It has been produced by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the University of Leeds' Centre for Inter-Disciplinary Applied Ethics (IDEA), and is supported by the ICE, IET, IChemE, IOM3 and IMechE, and the Engineering Council.

http://www.raeng.org.uk/publications/reports/engineering-in-society

14 / 11 / 2017

Medical Technology – Meeting Tomorrow’s Health Care Challenges

John Grue, Anne-Brit Kostø

Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences

A written version of talks presented at a symposium with the title: Medical Technology - Meeting Tomorrow's Health Care Challenges

http://www.ntva.no/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/MedTechMaterie.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

Natural Disasters and Societal Safety

Roy Helge Gabrielsen, Suzanne Lacasse

Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences

A written version of talks presented at a symposium with the title: Natural Disasters and Societal Safety.

http://www.ntva.no/fellesrapport2015/

14 / 11 / 2017

Technologies and climate change – Solutions for mitigation and adaptation

Marion Guillou, Alain Pave, Jean-Claude Andre, Olivier Appert, Jacques Blamont, Yves Caristan, Bernard Decomps, Jean-Louis Étienne, Erol Gelenbe, Marion Guillou, Thierry …   see more contributors

Chambolle, François de Charentenay, Jean-Michel Charpin, Gérard Grunblatt, Bruno Jarry, Paul Parnière, Alain Pavé, Marc Pelegrin, Gilbert Ruelle, Christian Saguez, Bernard Tardieu, Olivier Boucher, Jean Denegre, Christian Grellier, Jean-Charles Hourcade, François Lefaudeux, Lesbourne Ghislain de Marsily, François Murdy, Gérard Payen, Alain Pouyat, Jean-Claude Raoule, Gérard Roucairol

National Academy of Technologies of France

The report takes stock of available or future technologies for mitigating climate change. First conclusion: climate-engineering, in the current state of knowledge, is not an alternative. Then it identifies the most favourable conditions, especially in the most contributing sectors, for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and promoting preventive adaptation measures, including a carbon emission penalty. The cost of increased energy efficiency must be less than the value of the energy saved and, as the case may be, the worth of CO2 not emitted. The same cost-benefit analysis should apply for any mitigation technology considered. Preventive adaptation measures are possible in agriculture, forestry, energy, urban environment, manufacturing, coastal protection, access to safe water, resources management, etc. Moreover, involving civil society (lifestyles and behaviours) will play an important role in reducing GHG emissions. And we must not forget technologies in developing countries, which are often more vulnerable to climate change than the richer developed countries.

http://www.academie-technologies.fr/en/blog/categories/natf-academic-reports/posts/technology-and-climate-change-several-solutions-to-mitigate-the-effects-and-to-adapt--3

14 / 11 / 2017

Methane – where does it come from, what is its impact on the climate?

National Academy of Technologies of France

Strong variations of atmospheric concentrations of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, have accompanied glacial and interglacial periods. Such variations influence the timetable and magnitude of climate changes. The report describes and analyses natural and human-related sources and sinks of atmospheric methane with particular attention to potentially massive emissions from thawing permafrost in Arctic wetlands and marine methane hydrates (clathrates). The methane fluxes between main reservoirs and the atmosphere is measured via ground-based networks or from outer space, allowing a better understanding of evolving atmospheric concentrations and interaction between sinks and sources. As atmospheric methane is destroyed over time (half-life ~7 years), its CO2 equivalence, in terms of GHG-efficiency is not straight-forward, depending on the time-scale applied.  While increasing fossil fuel exploitation is an important methane source, emissions could be limited at reasonable cost.  Feedbacks from wetlands and soils are more difficult to control. A number of recommendations on how to limit methane release are made in areas such as agricultural practices, waste- and landfill management, biomass combustion, exploitation of coal, natural gas and oil. Carefully follow developments in boreal zones, especially regarding the possible exploitation of methane from permafrost and marine clathrates.

http://www.academie-technologies.fr/en/blog/posts/methane-ch4-what-are-its-origins-and-its-impact-on-our-climate

14 / 11 / 2017

Impact of ICT on world energy consumption

Erol Gelenbe, Yves Caseau, Anne Benoit, Anne-Cécile Orgerie, Giorgio Da Costa, Jean-Marc Ducos, Andy Hoppes, Yacine Kessaji, Laurent Lefevre, Thomas …   see more contributors

Ludwig, Jean-Marc Menand, Jean-Michel Rodriguez

National Academy of Technologies of France

How does ICT impact on worldwide energy consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions? This is what NATF went to find out when auditioning French and foreign experts to evaluate the overall energy and environmental balance that is due to the ICT sector, considering the impacts generated by the operation of its various hardware and infrastructure, and the savings it spawns in other areas of activity. The final energy and carbon balance of ICT, the Academy report concludes, is clearly a positive one. In 2012, ICT accounted for 4.7% of worldwide electricity consumption, and a total carbon footprint of about 1.7 percent (including private, industry and telecom hardware and infrastructure and data centres). These numbers are on an upwards trend, but in smaller proportions than the growing use of ICT, thanks to its contribution to reduce these footprints in other areas of activities such as in the transport sector, buildings, manufacturing industries, or even dematerialised procedures. The report focuses on the (global) transport/mobility sector benefitting from digitisation in and around vehicles, with gradually reduced/optimised travel needs (example United States).  It also lists current lines of research aimed at better performance of computing, with lower energy consumption.

http://www.academie-technologies.fr/en/blog/posts/energy-and-carbon-prints-effects-of-icts-on-energy-consumption-round-the-world

14 / 11 / 2017

Energy Vectors

National Academy of Technologies of France

Changes in energy procurement/uses have often followed differing trajectories in different countries while being related by factors such as oil prices and climate change.  While these forces are still active, time-scales have shifted (e.g. for peak oil and gas). The Fukushima accident has recently shaken confidence into nuclear power. This Report proposes a robust methodology helping in situations of energy transition to make relevant choices on both economic and ecological levels. Focussing on the French situation, it defines Energy Vectors as the support system delivering energy in the form of electricity, petrol, gas, or heat, etc. to consumers and deals with the intermediary stage of vectors between energy sources (coal, gas, U, wind, hydro) and demand of final energy (for transport, heating, industrial processes, etc.). But end-consumers are often not aware of the source for the final energy they receive. Distinguishing between sources would allow economic and ecological competition (when C02 emissions carry a price-tag).  This report throws new light on the political decisions that must be taken and provides guidelines with a long-range relevance - the parametric structure allowing application to any given case.

http://www.academie-technologies.fr/en/blog/categories/natf-academic-reports/posts/energy-vectors-permanent-guide-lines-for-future-energy-procurement-decisions-ed-le-manuscrit-paris-2012

14 / 11 / 2017

Biogas

Bruno Jarry, Daniel Thomas, Pierre-Étienne Bost, Alain Michel Boudet, Pierre Bourlioux, Michel Combarnous, Pierre Feillet, Pierre …   see more contributors

Galle, Marion Guillou, Bernard Le Buanec, Jean Lunel, Bernard Tardieu, Gérard Toulouse, Gilles Trystram, Dominique Pin, Francois Mudry, Bernard Saunier

National Academy of Technologies of France

Historically speaking, biogas, resulting from the decomposition of organic matter, has been known since the late 18th century, when Alessandro Volta analysed the composition of swamp gas, finding methane as the main component.  In France and India, the exploitation of this process through bacterial “fermentation” in digesters started in the late 19th century while China builds a whole infrastructure around biogas, but always on a local scale, taking advantage of carbon credits from European industry for their funding.  In Europe, the production of biogas on an industrial scale takes off somewhere between 1980 and 1990, while France joins in at a somewhat slower pace than some other countries. The report describes the various sources and processes for the generation of biogas, such as: hermetically sealed waste dumps and the capture of biogas from anaerobic digestion – this source of biogas is declining; anaerobic fermentation on an industrial scale of household waste (difficult to handle because of heterogeneity of such waste) with different species of bacteria developing peak activity at different temperatures; fermentation of agricultural crop waste (including maize) and animal droppings (including dung); processing of biodegradable sludge from waste water treatment plants (and other biological waste) using a controlled thermophilic aerobic fermentation; etc.The valorisation of the resulting digestates as fertilizer is not yet well regulated. Biogas plants using a second generation methanisation process, dubbed Bio-methane 2G, a thermo-chemical process of methanisation of dry organic material at temperatures of 750 to 1000 degrees C have been built at Ulm, Germany and Gothenburg, Sweden With regard to climate change, biogas is regarded as a renewable energy reducing the generation of greenhouse gases and EU policies therefore promote the generation and utilisation of biogas.

http://academie-technologies-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/2016/03/29/14/01/48/654/biogaz_internet.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

Big Data: a change of paradigm can hide another – Opportunities and threats related to the emergence of new ecosystems

Yves Caseau, Maurice Bellanger, Marko Erman, Hervé Gallaire, Erol Gelenbe, Michel Frybour, …   see more contributors

Jacques Lukasik, Pierre Perrier, Alain Pouyat, Bruno Revellin-Falcoz, Gérard Roucairol, Gérard Sabah, Christian Saguez, Éric Spitz, Alain Brénac, Laurent Gouzènes, Claude Kirchner, Jacques Serris, Hélène Serveille

National Academy of Technologies of France

Big Data implies a revolution in IT, reaching from technology to applications and practices, enabling the analysis of vast pools of "digital traces" to know customer intentions with unmatched precision. Data manipulation from smartphones and connected objects opens up new service opportunities and significant cost reductions of information systems. While it is a major issue for sciences, politics and citizens, this report looks at the impact on businesses: mastering these methods permits a new immediacy in customer relationships and may leave enterprises less vulnerable to the GAFAs. Big data is a disruptive data-analysis methodology, in particular in marketing, replacing classic approaches by iterative loops in which detected patterns are immediately confronted with situations of implementation and judgement on operational effectiveness.a new way of massive parallel data-centred programming and of designing algorithms, due to the: - treatment on a myriad of machines, - high-performance requirements and - need to develop algorithms through learning. A major challenge and paradigm shift for Governments and companies, deserving strong support in terms of training and awareness. Technology and practice play key roles; new ways of working with an extremely wide scope need to be developed.

http://www.academie-technologies.fr/en/blog/posts/big-data-a-change-of-paradigm

14 / 11 / 2017

Resource Efficient Business Models – Greater Competitiveness – Capital Goods. Sector Report.

IVA (Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences)

A report from the IVA project Resource Efficient Business Models Greater Competitiveness, 2016.

https://www.iva.se/en/published/Resource-Efficient-Business-Models-sector-reports/

14 / 11 / 2017

Called to Serve

The Irish Academy of Engineering

Joint publication, with Engineers Ireland, of biographies and Presidential Addresses of Presidents of the Institution of Engineers of Ireland, over the period from the establishment of the Institution in 1835 to 1969, printed in book format

http://iae.ie/publications/heritage-called-to-serve-april-8-2015/

14 / 11 / 2017

Using CTM (Cycloxydim Tolerant Maize) mutation in maize weed control In: Mutagenesis: exploring novel genes and pathways, Chapter 10

Croatian Academy of Engineering

The production of maize could be successful only with effective weed control. Over the past fifteen years, along with research into new selective herbicide molecules, a complementary approach has been developed: selection of crop plant varieties tolerant to existing herbicidal substances. These varieties, known as herbicide tolerant are, among all, the result of naturally occurring variability or consequence of mutagenesis techniques. Cycloxydim Tolerant Maize (CTM) mutation was developed by researchers at the University of Minnesota in 1990. CTM plants were regenerated from tissue culture selected for callus growth in the presence of cycloxydim. The resulting plants were shown to contain a mutation, expressed as a single, partially dominant gene that conferred tolerance to the herbicide. The right of its use was obtained by the BASF Company, which is an owner of a herbicide licence. This company's preparation, Focus Ultra herbicide, contains 100 g/l of active ingredient, i.e. cycloxydim. Tolerance to cycloxydim can be achieved by the incorporation of one or two CTM alleles into a single cross maize hybrid, for the herbicide rates up to 4 l/ha, which is maximum dose proposed by the producer. The CTM homozygote was tolerant up to the final observed rate of 10 l/ha, but this dosage is only of theoretical importance. The CTM hybrids are created by crossing the CTM inbred lines developed in the initial phase of the programme. Critical to the success of this technology has been yield performance of CTM hybrids. At the same time, yield performance and herbicide tolerance do not exclude each other and can surely co-exist. One out of nine ZP Ultra hybrids that are developed at the Maize Research Institute has already reached high production hectares in Serbia.

http://www.wageningenacademic.com/doi/abs/10.3920/978-90-8686-787-5_10

14 / 11 / 2017

Survey and Analysis of Basic Social Science and Humanities Research at the Science Academies and Related Research Organisations of Europe (SASSH)

The Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities

Current financial and monetary difficulties in Europe are overshadowing the issue of a lack of common European identity. 200 years of national states seem to have suppressed 1800 years of a history shaped by mutual enrichment in politics, science and arts – a European cultural heritage that must be revived in the minds of its citizens. It is for the humanities to research, explain, propagate and preserve this heritage. While numerous research projects on cultural heritage are conducted on national levels, a pan-European programme on basic research in the social sciences and humanities (SSH) is still lacking. To improve the coordination and integration of European research activities in the future, a survey of these activities and (digital) infrastructures is needed.

https://edoc.bbaw.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/2331

14 / 11 / 2017

Reform options for the european emission trading systems (EU ETS)

Euro-CASE

Euro-CASE convened in Brussels on 24-25 September to inform about the policy paper on reform option of the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) and present it to relevant European decision makers.

http://euro-case.org/images/stories/pdf/position-paper/Euro-CASE-policy-paper-ETS-reform.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

Innovation Procurement

Euro-CASE

Demand-side initiatives and procurement were important issues in the Aho group report presented to the European leaders at their spring summit in 2006 (Aho et al., 2006). The report called for the support of markets for innovative goods and services, including public procurement. In this report we want to further emphasize the negligence in the EU and its member states of demand-side innovation policy instruments, especially innovation procure-ment.

http://euro-case.org/images/stories/pdf/position-paper/Euro-CASE_paper-on-Innovation-Procurement.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

European Innovation Policy

Euro-CASE

Innovation is one of the cornerstones for future growth and prosperity in Europe. The EU has recognized this by making the Innovation Union one of the flagship Initiatives of the Europe 2020 Strategy.1 Still Europe is facing several challenges when it comes to being the most innovation friendly region: Fragmented markets and an unfinished European Research Area (ERA), limited financial resources due to the on-going financial and eco-nomic crises in several European countries, deteriorating venture capital markets and limited entrepreneurial activities.2 The challenges are manifold and EU support for re-search and innovation not only in financial but also in structural terms is of great im-portance for strengthening Europe's innovativeness. With Horizon 2020 the European Union has set up the largest multilateral research fund-ing programme for research and innovation ever. Compared to its predecessor FP7, Horizon 2020 puts more emphasis on deploying excellent research results into marketa-ble products to strengthen industrial leadership and to use research and innovation to tackle societal challenges. The mission orientation is vital because Europe is facing a profound transformation of society, driven in the first place by technological changes of an unprecedented scope and size; by an inevitable radical change of the current energy model and by an accelerated globalisation process. The world will change faster and that will require a greater capacity to adapt. While Euro-CASE believes that research, innovation and technology led by specific mis-sions is a viable way to go ahead it considers a change in the innovation culture and the way entrepreneurial activities are valued in Europe as prerequisites to make Europe the most innovative region in the world. The European Union as well as the Member States should act resolutely in making their innovation systems more competitive. Europe can-not and should not compete on the basis of cheap labour. Therefore, overarching topics such as embracing technological change, driving the next industrial revolution and sup-porting a culture of innovation across both academia and entrepreneurs alike are important steps for Europe’s competitiveness. In this context, the Euro-CASE Innovation Platform puts forward policy recommendation in the areas of Innovation Procurement, Public-Private-Partnerships in Research and Innovation, Financing Innovation and the Transformation of Manufacturing. 1. Introduction: The importance of innovation for future growth and challenges for the EU 2. The Euro-CASE Innovation Platform – formation and scope 3. Euro-CASE recommendations on EU Innovation Policy

http://euro-case.org/images/stories/pdf/platforms/Euro-CASE_Innovation-Platform-Paper.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

Electricity production, transmission and storage – challenges for the future European electricity system

Euro-CASE

Even if energy consumption in Europe is decreasing through energy efficiency, total European electricity usage is increasing due to new markets and uses, for example IT, and also by the perceived increase in electrification in the heating and transport sectors. An increased electrification of the energy system is a trend across the globe and the growth in electricity demand and capability has the potential of transforming both energy supply and end use. Electricity has historically been generated by mainly fossil fuels together with hydropower and nuclear power. An increased electrification requires further measures to reduce the share of fossil fuels in the future electricity production system. A growth in electricity demand and change in character of the electricity supply system require increasingly strategic approaches to balance supply and demand. The future electricity generation system is expected to be composed of a combination of central power plants and numerous small decentralized plants. Important prerequisites for a European-wide electrification of the energy system are the development of infrastructure, harmonisation of the national electricity systems, the development and evolution of the European internal market, and great strengthening of cross-border collaboration between European countries. It also requires analysis and homogenisation of the subsidies system and an improvement of the EU ETS system, with the objective of replacing the majorities of the subsidies. Whichever scenario the future European energy system will follow, it will consist of a mixture of intermittent power and dispatchable power. Fossil fuels and nuclear power will dominate the European electricity system for the next 20-30 years. Even with a massive expansion of the renewable proportion, a large part of the power generation in Europe will be based on fossil fuels in 2050. Four possible transformation paths to a fossil free energy system can be identified;

http://euro-case.org/images/stories/pdf/platforms/Technology-Discussion-Paper.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

Giants of the Future – how do we create the big industrial companies of the future in Denmark?

The Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV)

Big companies play a decisive role in Danish economy and constitute a major driving force for growth in productivity, export and jobs. In addition, big companies invest considerably more in R&D than small and medium-sized companies, partly internally and partly in cooperation with knowledge institutions. Big companies are vital when it comes to tranforming knowledge into value - from Science to Engineering. In this report we have analysed a number of growth companies in Denmark and compared these with at reference group. Then, we have concluded a number of recommendations concerning leadership, investments in R&D, cooperation with external knowledge partners, global export focus, investments in several difference technology areas and prioritisation of highly edcuated work forces.

http://atv.dk/category/12-rapporter?download=597

14 / 11 / 2017

Technical Education and Capacity building for the Raw Materials Industry in Greenland Danish

The Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV)

The purpose of this report is to identify the need for enhancing the capacity in relation to technical education and for pinpointing related focus areas which may act as a lever to ensure a substantial Greenlandic yield of raw materials exploitation – due to the fact that Greenland holds large natural resources but has limited experience in the exploitation of raw materials and limited insight in the mining industry.

http://atv.dk/category/12-rapporter?download=425

14 / 11 / 2017

Technical Education and Capacity building for the Raw Materials Industry in Greenland

The Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV)

The purpose of this report is to identify the need for enhancing the capacity in relation to technical education and for pinpointing related focus areas which may act as a lever to ensure a substantial Greenlandic yield of raw materials exploitation – due to the fact that Greenland holds large natural resources but has limited experience in the exploitation of raw materials and limited insight in the mining industry.

http://atv.dk/category/12-rapporter?download=425

14 / 11 / 2017

Recruitment of school teachers with science as main subject

The Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV)

Much too few young people chose to educate themselves as school teachers with science as main subject. The report sum up experiences from a conference and smaller follow up meetings. In this report, ATV gives recommendations for action to main stakeholders in order to make the education more attractive.

http://www.atv.dk/category/12-rapporter?download=329

14 / 11 / 2017

Materials Research as an Innovation and Growth Driver

The Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV)

Research in new materials and conveying this research to the product development departments of private companies is a basic condition for growth in a large number of industrial companies. This report focuses on the factors which are considered to be essential for the creation of innovation in industry by developing new materials and by developing new uses of existing materials.

http://atv.dk/category/12-rapporter?download=416

14 / 11 / 2017

Devising an Educational Barometer for University Educations 48 Danish

The Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV)

The most important value-stream of the Danish universities are their graduates. The graduates must be educated at the highest level possible, given the resources at hand. In this report, ATV analyses central elements in the master degrees obtainable at Danish universities – elements such as professionalism, competency, capabilities, scientific level, value-creation and international comparability.

http://atv.dk/category/12-rapporter?download=345

14 / 11 / 2017

Academy Hearing 11 Danish

The Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV)

Questionnaire to the members of ATV (Danish Academy of Technical Sciences) concerning the status of certain areas of interest such as economy, employment, work force and the like.

http://atv.dk/category/12-rapporter?download=409

14 / 11 / 2017

Duty of Care and Cybersecurity

Netherlands Academy of Technology and Innovation

The present report is an exploratory investigation of whether contributory parties other than criminals and private individuals may have legal duties to help combat cybercrime. The scope is limited to four jurisdictions (The Netherlands, U.S.A., Brazil, and Czech Republic) and three specific topics of cybercrime: security of hardware and software, ransomware, and DDoS attacks. The focus is on a legal analysis, preceded by a brief factual description, and closing with tentative suggestions for improvement.

http://www.euro-case.org/images/stories/pdf/Public-Reports/Duties-of-Care_HR.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

The Potential of Dual Study Programmes in the STEM Subjects

Andrä Wolter

acatech

Innovation is key to sustainable value creation and employment in Germany. However, even today there is already a shortage of adequately qualified personnel in some innovative industries. As a result of high staff turnover and the anticipated future increase in recruitment levels, a growing shortfall is becoming particularly apparent in the “STEM” field, which incorporates all professions that involve technology, mathematics and the natural sciences. By continuing to strengthen dual study programmes we can help to secure a long-term supply of qualified personnel. Different studies and surveys together with heightened media interest all point to the fact that this blend of vocational training and academic education has become extremely popular in recent years.

http://www.acatech.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Baumstruktur_nach_Website/Acatech/root/de/Publikationen/Englisch/acatech_DualesStudium_Kurzfassung_EN.pdf

14 / 11 / 2017

The Innovative Power of Health Technologies Recommendations for the sustainable promotion of innovation in medical technology

Olaf Dössel

acatech

Health technology and modern medical technology play a key role in healthcare provision in Germany. They provide systems that help patients make a quicker and more complete recovery, help doctors prescribe more targeted treatments with fewer side-effects and allow people with disabilities to lead independent lives. Medical technology encompasses imaging techniques such as X-ray technology, diagnostic measurement techniques such as electrocardiography and both active and passive implants such as cardiac pacemakers and artificial joints. In recent years, computer-assisted surgery and hospital information systems have also increasingly come to the fore. New and improved medical products are thus not only of benefit to patients but also to doctors working in a wide range of different fields and indeed to business and society as a whole

http://www.acatech.de/de/publikationen/publikationssuche/detail/artikel/innovationskraft-der-gesundheitstechnologien-neue-empfehlungen-zur-foerderung-innovativer-medizinte.html

14 / 11 / 2017

Shaping the future of mobility: mobility pricing in Europe and beyond

TA-SWISS Foundation for Technology Assessment – a Centre of competence of the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences

As in many industrialized countries, the transport system in Switzerland has since evolved with ever increasing speed. Not just in the Gotthard region, where in 1882, the pass road was outclassed by the opening of the railway tunnel. Almost exactly one hundred years later, the motorway tunnel started operating, dwarfed today by the rail base tunnel whose 57 km make it the world’s longest tunnel project. Technology Assessment (TA) is well placed to know that such technological feats entail opportunities as well as risks. Greater mobility, better means of communication and improved transport systems have to be balanced with ever-increasing numbers of infrastructure users, traffic congestion, pollution and envi-ronmental impacts as well as exploding costs in financial as well as social terms. By furnishing independent and credible analyses, TA provides policy options intended to guide technological developments for the good of society. This report provides an overview of mobility pricing in dif-ferent countries as well as their plan to tackle the challenge of managing mobility in the near future.

https://www.ta-swiss.ch/EPTA-Bericht-17_high_final_2.pdf

31 / 10 / 2017

Improving Global Health

G20 Science Academies

Communicable (infectious) and non-communicable (non-infectious) diseases seriously endanger individual wellbeing and global health, and threaten the global economy. Strong short- and long-term evidence-based strategies are needed. The G20 Academies of Sciences call for (1) the strengthening of healthcare and public health systems, (2) applying existing and emerging knowledge, (3) addressing the broader social and environmental determinants of health, (4) reducing serious risk factors for disease through education and promotion of healthy life styles, (5) ensuring access to health resources globally, and (6) enhancing and extending robust strategies for surveillance and information-sharing. Furthering research is a prerequisite for providing knowledge and new tools to meet these challenges.

https://www.leopoldina.org/en/publications/detailview/publication/verbesserung-der-globalen-gesundheit-2017/

31 / 07 / 2017

Ethical and legal assessment of genome editing in research on human cells

Ulla Bonas, Bärbel Friedrich, Johannes Fritsch, Albrecht Müller, Bettina Schöne-Seifert, Henning Steinicke, Klaus Tanner, Jochen Taupitz, Jörg Vogel, Marcel Weber, Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker

German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina

New techniques in molecular biology that enable targeted interventions in the genome are opening up promising new possibilities for research and application. The ethical and legal ramifications of these methods, known as “genome editing” and “genome surgery”, need to be discussed throughout society, particularly with regard to research on human cells. The German Embryo Protection Act prohibits research on human embryos in Germany. However, the act, last amended in 2011, does not cover all issues raised by these new methods in genome surgery. To foster discussion on these issues in Germany, an interdisciplinary group of experts from the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina has written a Discussion Paper entitled “Ethical and legal assessment of genome editing in research on human cells”.

https://www.leopoldina.org/en/publications/detailview/publication/ethische-und-rechtliche-beurteilung-des-genome-editing-in-der-forschung-an-humanen-zellen-2017/

31 / 07 / 2017

New economic growth: the role of science, technology, innovation and infrastructure

G-Science Academies

Science, technology and innovation have lang been important drivers of economic growth and human development. Growth relies on the integration of basic and applied research, at both public and private levels, on an international scale. The challenge is to ensure that, even during phases of economic slowdown, science and technology continue to support the objectives of sustainability and improved living standards in all countries.

https://www.leopoldina.org/en/publications/detailview/publication/new-economic-growth-2017/

31 / 07 / 2017

The challenge of neurodegenerative diseases in an aging population

G-Science Academies

World population growth has been accompanied by a progressive increase in the number of older people. Government-supported medical research and scientific discoveries as well as improved education and living conditions have greatly reduced the chances of pandemics caused by infectious pathogens. In developed countries, life expectancy is now rising well above 80 years. Although in older people the prevailing causes of death are still cardiovascular diseases and cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and other neurodegenerative disorders that are known to be strongly age-related are among the top ten illnesses ending with death that cannot yet be cured or slowed significantly.

https://www.leopoldina.org/en/publications/detailview/publication/the-challenge-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-in-an-aging-population-2017/

31 / 07 / 2017

Cultural heritage: building resilience to natural disasters

G-Science Academies

This statement focuses an the resilience of cultural heritage to natural disasters. Man-made disasters are excluded from consideration, although the devastation they induce is often comparable or even greater than the effects of natural catastrophes, as shown by recent and less recent wars or terrorist attacks. However, as man-made disasters invariably have societal causes, responses to them need strategies distinct from those dealing with natural disasters and need to be addressed separately. In spite of numerous declarations concerning the protection of cultural heritage, national governments have been slow in taking effective actions. This is of serious concern since the list of recent catastrophic events that have severely affected the cultural heritage worldwide is extensive. Cultural heritage has suffered from the devastating effects of earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, debris flows, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and fires. Unfortunately, for the most part, little has been learnt from these catastrophic events.

https://www.leopoldina.org/en/publications/detailview/publication/cultural-heritage-building-resilience-to-natural-disasters-2017/

31 / 07 / 2017

Multi-functionality and Sustainability in the European Union’s Forests

Jaana Bäck, Réka Aszalós, Reinhard JM Ceulemans, Gerhard Glatzel, Marc Hanewinkel, Emmanuel Kakaras, Janne Kotiaho, Anders Lindroth, Ditmarová Lubica, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, John Mackay, Michal V Marek, Mechele Morgante, GJ Nabuurs, Otso Ovaskainen, Maria Salomé Pais, Marcus Schaub, Olli Tahvonen, Timo Vesala, William Gillett, Michael Norton

European Academies Science Advisory Council

European forests have multiple functions - from wealth and employment creation, the production of natural resources and raw materials for industry and bioenergy production, provision of spaces for leisure and recreation, conservation of nature and biodiversity, to mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change. This multi-functionality creates conflicts between different uses and stakeholders, and presents considerable challenges for policy-makers to avoid conflicts and to enhance sustainability and synergies between different policy domains. A multidisciplinary group of European experts has reviewed the latest scientific knowledge to develop recommendations for sustainable forest management in the EU that delivers the optimal social, environmental and economic benefits.

Download the publication http://www.easac.eu/fileadmin/PDF_s/reports_statements/Forests/EASAC_Forests_web_complete.pdf

31 / 05 / 2017

Response to the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills call for evidence for the National Innovation Plan

The Royal Society

How best can our regulators drive innovation and make the UK the regulatory test bed capital of Europe? The Royal Society has responded to an online call for ideas on a National Innovation Plan, conducted by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. The response is based on existing Royal Society positions. For the UK to provide an optimal environment for innovation, it is essential that the design and implementation of policy is informed by appropriate evidence and advice at every stage of the policymaking process. Policies and regulation are essential to enable rapid development and application of new science and technologies in ways that best support economic growth and wellbeing. The Society supports appropriate and proportionate regulation of new and emerging technologies. This approach will allow for the design of flexible regulations that can keep pace with innovative research and its applications, in order to support rapid and safe realisation or commercialisation. In developing new regulations, regulators should keep in mind the full breadth of the innovation ecosystem and ensure that legislation does not inadvertently have a negative impact on the sector as a whole. The Society is undertaking projects surrounding cyber, machine learning and use of data; flexible regulation will be essential for the suitable governance and growth of technologies such as these.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2016/response-to-BIS-call-for-evidence-for-national-innovation-plan/

27 / 05 / 2017

Genome editing: scientific opportunities, public interests and policy options in the European Union

Volker ter Meulen, Austin Burt, Baerbel Friedrich, Goran Hermeren, Wlodzimierz Krzyzosiak, Cecilia Leao, Joseph Martial, Bert Rima, Radislav Sedlacek, Bruno Studer, Miikka Vikkula, Kirmo Wartiovaara, Anna Wedell, Detlef Weigel, Robin Fears

European Academies Science Advisory Council

A new report by the European Academies' Science Advisory Council on genome editing gives advice to European policy-makers on groundbreaking research involving genome editing and plants, animals, microbes and patients. In the report "Genome Editing: Scientific opportunities, public interests, and policy options in the EU" EASAC emphasises that policy-makers must ensure that the regulation of applications is evidence-based, takes into account likely benefits as well as hypothetical risks, and is proportionate and sufficiently flexible to cope with future advances in the science.

Download the publication http://www.easac.eu/home/reports-and-statements/detail-view/article/genome-editi.html

23 / 03 / 2017

Consultation response: Commons Science and Technology Committee inquiry into genomics and genome-editing 

The Royal Society

The Royal Society has written to the Commons Science and Technology Committee in response to their inquiry into genomics and genome editing. The response highlights the value and wide ranging applications of genetic technologies, outlines the need for a regulatory system that is proportionate, adaptable and future-proof, and the underlines the importance of public confidence in science and technology. All these factors are considered within the context of the UK’s Industrial Strategy, to help promote an environment that fosters innovative and responsible development and application of these technologies.

https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/publications/2017/consultation-reponse-february-genomics-and-genome-editing/

27 / 02 / 2017

Opinion of the French National Academy of Medicine on the evaluation i) of the health risks related to the presence of barium in clays constituting the thermal muds and ii) the absence of sanitary control of the thermal mud.

Christian-François Roques-Latrille, Richard Tréves, Patrice Queneau, Daniel Bontoux,

Académie Nationale de Médecine

Every year about 6,000,000 mud treatments are delivered in France to 400,000 patients. The Health Department asked the perception of the National Academy of Medicine i) on barium observed in clays used for mud therapy and ii) on the opportunity to organize a health control of muds. The report was elaborated from a literature analysis and exchanges with persons involved in mud therapy (scientists and professionals). Findings and recommandations are exposed.

http://www.academie-medecine.fr/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/17.2.21-rapport-ROQUES-site1.pdf

21 / 02 / 2017

Big data: ethical challenges for companies

Christian Hauser, Helene Blumer, Markus Christen, Lorenz Hilty, Markus Huppenbauer, Tony Kaiser

Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences

Who we are, what we do and who we communicate with are all now routinely recorded by countless devices. This is not targeted monitoring but rather an inherent characteristic of digital technology. In addition, data are increasingly easy to store and evaluate using ever more complex procedures. Some people view these developments as signifying tremendous potential for innovation, whilst others perceive a sword of Damocles hanging over privacy and personal freedom. Although both points of view are widely touted, the discussion of big data (and of the very term itself) remains in its infancy. To investigate this topic, experts have spent a year and a half examining big data at the interface between companies and their customers. These specialists have developed five current and potential future applications of big data and identified eight ethical standards and values that could be affected by big data. Their findings have been used to formulate recommendations for action for government and business that will aid in facilitating the development of big data technology and compliance with ethical frameworks.

https://www.satw.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/02_Themen/04_Digitalisierung/SATW_Big_Data_shortversion_EN.pdf

31 / 01 / 2017



Have a look to other publications :

2017 2016 2015 2014

Subscribe to our newsletter